The article describes the influence of anomalous values and local variability on the structure of variability and the estimation of deposit parameters. The research was carried out using statistical and geostatistical methods based on the Pb accumulation index in the shale series in part of the Cu-Ag ore deposit, LGCD (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). The authors recommend the use of a geostatistical tool, the so-called semivariogram cloud to determine the anomalous values. Anomalous values determined by the geostatistical method and removed from the dataset have resulted in a significant reduction of the relative variability of data, which is still very large in the case of the analyzed parameter or parameters with similar statistical features such as extreme variability and strongly asymmetric distribution. Calculations of the resources of this element can be treated only as estimates and formally classified to category D. The hypothetical assumption of the absence of sampling errors, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of local variation, leads to a certain reduction of the median error of resource estimates. However, they are still high (> 35%). This is due to the large natural variability of the accumulation index of Pb on the local observation scale. The current method for collecting samples from mine workings of the Cu-Ag deposits in the Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), aimed at the proper assessment of copper resources, the Cu content, and at estimating the quality of copper output, makes it impossible to achieve an accuracy of estimates of Pb resources similar to that obtained for the main metal. Theoretically, this effect can be achieved by a strong concentration of the sample collection points and thanks to a multiple increase in the samples weight; this, however, is unrealistic for both economic and organizational reasons. It is therefore to be expected that the assessment of Pb resources and other accompanying elements of similar statistical features (e.g. As), located in parts of the deposit where mining activities are to be carried out, will be subject to significant errors.
Secondary or multiple remelted alloys are common materials used in foundries. For secondary (recycled) Al-Si-Cu alloys, the major problem is the increased iron presence. Iron is the most common impurity and with presence of other elements in alloy creates the intermetallic compounds, which may negatively affect the structure. The paper deals with effect of multiple remelting on the microstructure of the AlS9iCu3 alloy with increased iron content to about 1.4 wt. %. The evaluation of the microstructure is focused on the morphology of iron-base intermetallic phases in caste state, after the heat treatment (T5) and after natural aging. The occurrence of the sludge phases was also observed. From the obtained results can be concluded that the multiple remelting leads to change of chemical composition, changes in the final microstructure and also increases sludge phases formation. The use of heat treatment T5 led to a positive change of microstructure, while the effect of natural aging is beneficial only to the 3rd remelting.
In this study, copper nanoparticles and nanofluids were synthesized by electrical explosion of wire (EEW) in liquid media such as water, ethanol, and acetone. The effect of the different conditions on the properties of the as-synthesized Cu powders and nanofluids were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was employed to measure the phase of the as-synthesized powder. Only pure Cu phase appeared in case of acetone condition, but CuO and CuO2 phases could be observed in the others. The EEWed particle size was broadened from under 50 to 100 nm. The results showed that acetone was the best condition for achieving smaller particles, preventing the oxidation of the Cu particles and good stability of the nanofluids.
As the most recent video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) adopts various novel techniques, including a quad-tree based coding unit (CU) structure and additional angular modes used for intra encoding. These new techniques achieve a notable improvement in coding efficiency at the penalty of significant computational complexity increase. Thus, a fast HEVC coding algorithm is highly desirable. In this paper, we propose a fast intra CU decision algorithm for HEVC to reduce the coding complexity, mainly based on a key-point detection. A CU block is considered to have multiple gradients and is early split if corner points are detected inside the block. On the other hand, a CU block without corner points is treated to be terminated when its RD cost is also small according to statistics of the previous frames. The proposed fast algorithm achieves over 62% encoding time reduction with 3.66%, 2.82%, and 2.53% BD-Rate loss for Y, U, and V components, averagely. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient to fast decide CU size in HEVC intra coding, even though only static parameters are applied to all test sequences.
Cu-Al-based high temperature shape memory alloys are preferred commonly due to their cheap costs and shape memory properties. In recent years, studies have been conducted on developing and producing a new type of Cu-Al based shape memory alloy. In this study, the CuAl-Cr alloy system, which has never been produced before, is investigated. After production, the SEMEDX measurements were made in order to determine the phases in the Cu84–xAl12Crx+4 (x = 0, 4, 6) (weight %) alloy system; and precipitate phases together with martensite phases were detected in the alloys. The confirmations of these phases were made via x-ray measurements. The same phases were observed by XRD diffractogram of the alloys as well. The values of transformation temperature of alloys were determined with Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) at 20°C/min heating rate. According to the DSC results, the transformation temperature of the alloys varies between 320°C and 350°C. This reveals that the alloys show high temperature shape memory characteristics.
The paper presents the cellular automaton (CA) model for tracking the development of dendritic structure in non-equilibrium solidification conditions of binary alloy. Thermal, diffusion and surface phenomena have been included in the mathematical description of solidification. The methodology for calculating growth velocity of the liquid-solid interface based on solute balance, considering the distribution of the alloy component in the neighborhood of moving interface has been proposed. The influence of solidification front curvature on the equilibrium temperature was determined by applying the Gibbs Thomson approach. Solute and heat transfer equations were solved using the finite difference method assuming periodic boundary conditions and Newton cooling boundary condition at the edges of the system. The solutal field in the calculation domain was obtained separately for solid and liquid phase. Numerical simulations were carried out for the Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy at two cooling rates 15 K/s and 50 K/s. Microstructure images generated on the basis of calculations were compared with actual structures of castings. It was found that the results of the calculations are agreement in qualitative terms with the results of experimental research. The developed model can reproduce many morphological features of the dendritic structure and in particular: generating dendritic front and primary arms, creating, extension and coarsening of secondary branches, interface inhibition, branch fusion, considering the coupled motion and growth interaction of crystals.
The paper deals with influence of multiple remelting on AlSi9Cu3 alloy with higher iron content on chosen mechanical properties. Multiple remelting may in various ways influence mechanical, foundry properties, gas saturation, shrinkage cavity, fluidity etc. of alloy. Higher presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled) aluminium alloys. In Al-Si alloy the iron is the most common impurity and with presence of other elements in alloy creates the intermetallic compounds, which decreases mechanical properties. Iron in the used alloy was increased to about 1.4 wt. %, so that the influence of increased iron content can be investigated. In the paper, the effect of multiple remelting is evaluated with respect to the resulting mechanical properties in cast state, after the heat treatment (T5) and after natural aging. From the obtained results it can be concluded that the multiple remelting leads to change of chemical composition and affect the mechanical properties.
Al-4.5Cu alloys are widely used in aerospace industries due to their low weight and high mechanical properties. This group of aluminium alloys is known as 2xx series and exhibits the highest mechanical properties however this alloy is known to suffer from feedability and high tendency for hot tearing. Al-Si alloys (3xx) have improved fluidity and better feedability particularly by several modifications such as Ti, B or Sr. Eutectic temperature is decreased and mechanical properties can be enhanced. Yet, the strength values of this alloy group cannot reach the values of 2xx series. Therefore, in this study, the effect of Ag addition on the fluidity of Al-4.5Cu alloy has been investigated. Standard size spiral mould was used. The casting temperature was selected to be 770oC. Five castings were made and Weibull statistical approach was used to evaluate the results. In addition, coating of the die with BN was also investigated. It was found that Ag addition and BN coating of the die revealed the most reproducible, reliable and high fluidity values.
Cu-Ni composite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by electrical explosion of wire (EEW) method. Cu-Ni alloy and twisted wires with various Ni contents were used as the feeding material for a 3 kV charging voltage EEW machine in an ethanol ambient chamber. The phase structure and magnetic properties of the as-fabricated samples were studied. It was established that the prepared powders after drying have a spherical form with the particle size is under 100 nm. XRD analysis indicated that the nanopowders consisted of binary Cu-Ni phases. Only pure phases of the intermetallic compound Cu-Ni (Cu0.81Ni0.19 and Cu3.8Ni) were observed in the XRD patterns of the samples. The synthesized intermetallic Cu-Ni alloy nanopowders reveal magnetic behaviors, however, the lower Ni content samples exhibited paramagnetic behaviors, meanwhile, the higher Ni content samples exposed ferromagnetic properties.
Al-CuO is a thermite material exhibiting the exothermic reaction only when aluminum melts. For wide spread of its application, the reaction temperature needs to be reduced in addition to the enhancement of total reaction energy. In the present study, a thermite nanocomposite with a large contact area between Al and CuO was fabricated in order to lower the exothermic reaction temperature and to improve the reactivity. A cryomilling process was performed to achieve the nanostructure, and the effect of composition on the microstructure and its reactivity was studied in detail. The microstructure was characterized using SEM and XRD, and the thermal property was analyzed using DSC. The results show that as the molar ratio between Al and CuO varies, the fraction of uniform nanocomposite structure was changed affecting the exothermic reaction characteristics.
Ag and Cu powders were mechanically alloyed using high-energy planetary milling to evaluate the sinter-bonding characteristics of a die-attach paste containing particles of these two representative conductive metals mixed at atomic scale. This resulted in the formation of completely alloyed Ag-40Cu particles of 9.5 µm average size after 3 h. The alloyed particles exhibited antioxidation properties during heating to 225°C in air; the combination of high pressure and long bonding time at 225°C enhanced the shear strength of the chip bonded using the particles. Consequently, the chips sinter-bonded at 225°C and 10 MPa for 10 min exhibited a sufficient strength of 15.3 MPa. However, an increase in bonding temperature to 250°C was detrimental to the strength, due to excessive oxidation of the alloyed particles. The mechanically alloyed phase in the particle began to decompose into nanoscale Ag and Cu phases above a bonding temperature of 225°C during heating.
Purpose: The influence of age-hardening solution treatment at temperature 515 degrees centigrade with holding time 4 hours, water quenching at 40 degrees centigrade and artificial aging by different temperature 130, 150, 170 and 210 degrees centigrade with different holding time 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 hours on changes in morphology of Fe-rich Al15(FeMn)3Si2and Cu-rich (Al2Cu, Al-Al2Cu-Si) intermetallic phases in recycled AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy. Material/Methods: Recycled (secondary) AlSi9Cu3 cast alloy is used especially in automotive industry (dynamic exposed cast, engine parts, cylinder heads, pistons and so on). Microstructure was observed using a combination of different analytical techniques (scanning electron microscopy upon standard and deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis – EDX) which have been used for the identification of the various phases. Quantitative study of changes in morphology of phases was carried out using Image Analyzer software NIS-Elements. The mechanical properties (Brinell hardness and tensile strength) were measured in line with STN EN ISO. Results/Conclusion: Age-hardening led to changes in microstructure include the spheroidization of eutectic silicon, gradual disintegration, shortening and thinning of Fe-rich intermetallic phases and Al-Al2Cu-Si phases were fragmented, dissolved and redistributed within alpha-matrix. These changes led to increase in the hardness and tensile strength in the alloy.
Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Chemical Engineering, 44-100 Gliwice, Bałtycka 5, Poland A review concerning main processes of hydrogenation of carbon oxides towards synthesis of methanol, mixture of methanol and higher aliphatic alcohols and one-step synthesis of dimethyl ether as well as methanol steam reforming is given. Low-temperature methanol catalysts and lowtemperature modified methanol catalysts containing copper as primary component and zinc as secondary one are described.
Analysis of a crystallographic texture (a preferred orientation) effect on cavitation wear resistance of the as-cast CuZn10 alloy, has been conducted in the present paper. The experiment was conducted on the CuZn10 alloy samples with <101>//ND or <111>//ND preferred orientations (where the ND denotes direction that is perpendicular to the exposed surface). The cavitation resistance examinations have been carried out on three different laboratory stands (namely, vibration, jet-impact and flow stands) that are characterized by a various intensity and a way of cavitation’s excitement. Obtained results point towards a higher cavitation resistance of the CuZn10 alloy with the <111> // ND preferred orientation.
The article presents the results of research concerning AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process under variable conditions of casting speed and cooling liquid flow through the crystallizer. The mechanical properties and structure of the obtained ingots were correlated with the process parameters. On the basis of the obtained results, it has been shown that depending on the cooling rate and the intensity of convection during solidification, significant differences in the mechanical properties and structure and of the ingots can occur. The research has shown that, as the casting speed and the flow rate of the cooling liquid increase, the hardness of the test samples decreases, while their elongation increases, which is related to the increase of the average grain size. Also, the morphology of the intermetallic phases precipitations lattice, as well as the centerline porosity and dendrite expansion, significantly affect the tensile strength and fracture mechanism of the tested ingots.
Nil strength temperature of 1062°C and nil ductility temperature of 1040°C were experimentally set for CuFe2 alloy. The highest formability at approx. 1020°C is unusable due to massive grain coarsening. The local minimum of ductility around the temperature 910°C is probably due to minor formation of γ-iron. In the forming temperatures interval 650-950°C and strain rate 0.1-10 s–1 the flow stress curves were obtained and after their analysis hot deformation activation energy of 380 kJ·mol–1 was achieved. Peak stress and corresponding peak strain values were mathematically described with good accuracy by equations depending on Zener-Hollomon parameter.
This study stacked a thin, dense BCuP-5 (Cu-Ag-P based filler metal) on a Cu-plate using the laser cladding (L.C) process to develop a method to manufacture Ag reducing multilayer clad electrical contact material with an Ag-M(O)/Ag/Cu/BCuP-5 structure. Then, the microstructure and macroscopic properties of the manufactured BCuP-5 coating layer were analyzed. The thickness of the manufactured coating layer was approximately 1.7 mm (maximum). Microstructural observation of the coating layer identified Cu, Ag and Cu-Ag-Cu3P ternary eutectic phases like those in the initial BcuP-5 powder. To evaluate the properties of the manufactured coating layer, hardness and adhesion strength tests were performed. The average hardness of the laser cladded coating layer was 183.2 Hv, which is 2.6 times greater than conventional brazed BcuP-5. The average pull-off strength measured using the stud pull test was 341.6 kg/cm2. Cross-sectional observation of the pulled-off material confirmed that the coating layer and substrate maintained a firm adhesion after pull-off. Thus, the actual adhesion strength of Cu/BcuP-5 was inferred to be greater than 341.6 kg/cm2. Based on the above findings, it was confirmed that it is possible to manufacture a sound Ag reducing multilayer clad electrical contact material using the laser cladding process.
Within the presented work, the effect of austenite transformation on abrasive wear as well as on rate and nature of corrosive destruction of spheroidal Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron was determined. Cast iron contained: 3.1÷3.4 %C, 2.1÷2.3 %Si, 2.3÷3.3 %Mn, 2.3÷2.5 %Cu and 4.8÷9.3 %Ni. At a higher degree of austenite transformation in the alloys with nickel equivalent below 16.0%, abrasive wear resistance was significantly higher. Examinations of the corrosion resistance were carried out with the use of gravimetric and potentiodynamic method. It was shown that higher degree of austenite transformation results in significantly higher abrasive wear resistance and slightly higher corrosion rate, as determined by the gravimetric method. However, results of potentiodynamic examinations showed creation of a smaller number of deep pinholes, which is a favourable phenomenon from the viewpoint of corrosion resistance.
In the paper, a relationship between chemical composition of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron and its structure, hardness and corrosion resistance is determined. The examinations showed a decrease of thermodynamic stability of austenite together with decreasing nickel equivalent value, in cast iron solidifying according to both the stable and the metastable systems. As a result of increasing degree of austenite transformation, the created martensite caused a significant hardness increase, accompanied by small decline of corrosion resistance. It was found at the same time that solidification way of the alloy and its matrix structure affect corrosion resista
The present research was conducted on thin-walled castings with 5 mm wall thicknesses. This study addresses the effect of the influence of different master alloys, namely: (1) Al-5%Ti-1%B, (2) Al-5%Ti and (3) Al-3%B, respectively on the structure and the degree of undercooling (ΔTα = Tα-Tmin, where Tα - the equilibrium solidification temperature, Tmin - the minimum temperature at the beginning of α(Al) solidification) of an Al-Cu alloy. The process of fading has been investigated at different times spent on the refinement treatment ie. from 3, 20, 45 and 90 minutes respectively, from the dissolution of master alloys. A thermal analysis was performed (using a type-S thermocouple) to determine cooling curves. The degree of undercooling and recalescence were determined from cooling and solidification curves, whereas macrostructure characteristics were conducted based on a metallographic examination. The fading effect of the refinement of the primary structure is accompanied by a significant change in the number (dimension) of primary grains, which is strongly correlated to solidification parameters, determined by thermal analysis. In addition to that, the analysis of grain refinement stability has been shown with relation to different grain refinements and initial titanium concentration in Al-Cu base alloy. Finally, it has been shown that the refinement process of the primary structure is unstable and requires strict metallurgical control.
The paper presents influence of soaking parameters (temperature and time) on structure and mechanical properties of spheroidal graphite nickel-manganese-copper cast iron, containing: 7.2% Ni, 2.6% Mn and 2.4% Cu. Raw castings showed austenitic structure and relatively low hardness (150 HBW) guaranteeing their good machinability. Heat treatment consisted in soaking the castings within 400 to 600°C for 2 to 10 hours followed by air-cooling. In most cases, soaking caused changes in structure and, in consequence, an increase of hardness in comparison to raw castings. The highest hardness and tensile strength was obtained after soaking at 550°C for 6 hours. At the same time, decrease of the parameters related to plasticity of cast iron (elongation and impact strength) was observed. This resulted from the fact that, in these conditions, the largest fraction of fine-acicular ferrite with relatively high hardness (490 HV0.1) was created in the matrix. At lower temperatures and after shorter soaking times, hardness and tensile strength were lower because of smaller degree of austenite transformation. At higher temperatures and after longer soaking times, fine-dispersive ferrite was produced. That resulted in slightly lower material hardness.
The paper presents the research results of the solenoid housing made of the Zn4Al1Cu alloy that was destroyed as a result of corrosion. Surface of the tested part showed macroscopically the features typical for white corrosion, and the resulting corrosion changes led to a disturbance of the alloy cohesion. The research performed have shown that the tested solenoid valve has intergranular corrosion as a reaction of the environment containing road salt. The corrosion was initiated in the areas of the alfa phase existence appearing in the eutectic areas which propagated over dendritic areas of the alloy. Initiation of the corrosion followed as a result of the galvanic effect of the alfa phase reach in aluminium showing higher electrochemical potential, in contact with the eta phase reach in zinc. The impact of the phase reach in lead present in the microstructure on the corrosion processes run was not found.
In the dissertation it has been shown, that so called „time-thermal treatment” (TTT) of the alloy in liquid state, as overheating the metal with around 250o C above the Tliq. and detaining it in this temperature for around 30 minutes, improves the mechanical properties (HB, Rm, R0,2). It was ascertained, that overheating the AlSi17Cu5Mg alloy aids the modification, resulting with microcrystalline structure. Uniform arrangement of the Si primeval crystals in the warp, and α(Al) solution type, supersaturated with alloying elements present in the base content (Cu, Mg) assures not only increased durability in the ambient temperature, but also at elevated temperature (250o C), what is an advantage, especially due to the use in car industry.