This paper presents an evaluation of the Hypoplastic Clay constitutive model for finite element analysis of deep excavations and displacements induced by excavations in the influence zone. A detailed description and formulation of the Hypoplastic Clay soil model is included. A parametric case study of a deep excavation executed in Pliocene clays is presented. FE analysis was performed using several soil models (Mohr-Coulomb, Modified Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager, Modified Cam-Clay, Hypoplastic Clay) and the results were compared to in-situ displacements measurements taken during construction. Final conclusions concerning the suitability of the Hypoplastic Clay model for deep excavation modelling in terms of accurate determination of horizontal displacements of the excavation wall, the uplift of the bottom of excavation, and, most importantly,vertical displacements of the terrain in the vicinity of the excavation are presented.
Thermodynamic descriptions of the ternary Fe-B-V system and its binary sub-system B-V, are developed using experimental thermodynamic and phase equilibrium data from the literature. The thermodynamic parameters of the other binaries, Fe-V and Fe-B, are taken from earlier assessments slightly modifying the Fe-V description. The work is in the context of a new Fe-B-X (X = Cr, Ni, Mn, V, Si, Ti, C) database. The solution phases are described using substitutional solution model. The borides are treated as stoichiometric or semi-stoichiometric phases and described with two-sublattice models.