The paper presents a new geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective building structures protection. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. To minimize the mining damage or to reduce its reach it is reasonable to look for technical solutions, which would enable effective protection of building structures. So far authors concentrated primarily on the development of building structure protection methods to minimize the damage caused by the underground mining. The application of geotechnical methods, which could protect building structures against the mining damage, was not considered so far in scientific papers. It should be noticed that relatively few publications are directly related to those issues and there are no practical examples of effective geotechnical protection. This paper presents a geotechnical solution indicating a possibility of effective protection of building structures. The presented solutions enable minimization of negative effects of underground mining operations. Results of numerical modelling have been presented for an example of design of preventive ditches reducing the influence of mining operations on the ground surface. The calculations were carried out in the Abaqus software, based on the finite element method.
The present paper reports the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the process of die forging a bimetallic door handle intended for the production of a helicopter. The aim of the studies was to develop and implement a technology for die forging of a product with a specific mass similar to that of magnesium alloys which will have, however higher corrosion resistance. Numerical modelling and industrial tests were carried out based on the previously forging processes for an AZ31 alloy door handle. The material for the tests was a bimetallic bar produced by the explosive welding method, in which the core was of alloy AZ31, and the cladding layer was made of 1050A grade aluminium. The studies were conducted for two variants: Variant I – the forging process was mapped by numerical modelling and industrial tests for the die shape and parameters used in the forging of the AZ31 alloy door handle, Variant II – the tool shape was optimized and process parameters were selected so as to obtain a finished product characterized by a continuous Al layer. From the theoretical studies and experimental tests carried out it has been found that the application of the Variant I does not assure that a finished door handle characterized by a continuous cladding layer will be produced. Within this study, a novel method of bimetallic door handle die forging (Variant II) has been developed, which limits the amount of the flash formed and assures the integrity of the cladding layer.
The paper presents the results of experimental-numerical tests of firing at aluminum composite materials. The test materials were manufactured by pressure infiltration of porous ceramic preforms made of -Al2O3 particles in the amount of 30% and 40% by volume. The EN AW-7075 alloy was chosen as the material matrix, and the steel 7.62×39 mm (M 43) FMJ (Full Metal Jacket) intermediate ammunition was selected for firing. In the result of the experiment, the samples were perforated with a clear difference in the muzzle diameter. The projectile with fragments caused damage to up to three reference plates placed behind the samples (witness plates) in composites with 40% of particles by volume. The mechanics of crack propagation during ballistic impacts of the projectile was characterized based on microstructure studies. Then, using numerical analysis of impact load, the examination of composite materials puncture in the ABAQUS environment was carried out. The Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed for the discretization of geometric models using Hex elements. The Johnson-Cook constitutive model describing the relationship between stress and strain in metal-ceramic composites was applied for the analyses. Numerical models were then subjected to numerical verification using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Based on the obtained results, it was found that the hybrid FEM/SPH method correlates significantly with the experimental results.
In industrialized countries cardiovascular diseases are the major cause of death. The last clinical therapy option for some patients, suffering from terminal heart diseases, is donor heart transplantation. As the available number of donor organs is decreasing, many patients die while waiting for a transplant. For this reason Ventricular Assist Devices (VADs), which can mechanically support the human heart to achieve a sufficient perfusion of the body, are under development. For an implantable VAD, design constraints have to be deduced from the physiological conditions in the human body. In case of a VAD drive, these constraints are for example dimensions, electric losses, which might result in an overheating of blood, and a long durability. Therefore a hybrid permanent magnet hydrodynamic bearing is designed in this paper, which works passively and contactless. Based on Finite Element simulations of magnetic fields, various permanent magnet topologies are studied in terms of axial forces and stiffness.
The following paper presents the solution to the problem of searching the best shape - structural form of the bottoms and optimal dimensions of the main cylinder of the carding machine with consideration to the criterion of minimal deflection amplitude. The ANSYS package of the Finite Element Method has been used for the analysis. Polak-Ribery conjugate gradient method has been applied for searching the optimal solution, basing on the parametric model of the cylinder written with the use of Ansys Parametric Design Language. As a result of the performed analyses, reduction of maximum deflection value at approximately 80 percent has been obtained. Optimal cylinder dimensions enable application of a new textile technology - microfibre carding and improvement in the quality of traditional carding technology of woollen and wool-like fibres.
The rigid finite element method (RFEM) has been used mainly for modelling systems with beam-like links. This paper deals with modelling of a single set of electrodes consisting of an upper beam with electrodes, which are shells with complicated shapes, and an anvil beam. Discretisation of the whole system, both the beams and the electrodes, is carried out by means of the rigid finite element method. The results of calculations concerned with free vibrations of the plates are compared with those obtained from a commercial package of the finite element method (FEM), while forced vibrations of the set of electrodes are compared with those obtained by means of the hybrid finite element method (HFEM) and experimental measurements obtained on a special test stand.
The aim of the study is to identify the relevant aspects of numerical analysis of impact of projectiles with soft cores into a package composed of thin flexible plies located on the plastic backing. In order to illustrate the problem, normal impact of 7.62 mm TT projectile into an unclamped package comprising 36 plies of Dyneema SB71 supported on the plastic backing was selected. The problem was solved with the use of the finite element method (FEM) with the explicit integration scheme (central difference method) of motion equations in the matrix form. Based on the conducted numerical computations, it was revealed that obtaining the extreme deformations of a projectile soft core and the backing material in Lagrangian description requires employment of adaptive methods. The proposed R-adaptive method performs its role but must be used carefully due to the mass loss which may appear during calculations.
The paper deals with experimental investigations of a set of metal wave-ring gaskets of different thickness and different assembly interference. The gaskets were examined under assembly conditions, i.e. pressed in their seats with no operating pressure applied. The electric resistance wire strain gauges were used to measure the circumferential and axial strains at the inner surface of the gaskets. The traces of contact at the working surface of the gaskets were measured after disassembly the gaskets from their seats. The material tests were carried out to determine the real mechanical properties of materials applied for the gaskets and the seats. The results of experiment were verified by FEM calculations and compared with the analytical approach based on the simplified shell model proposed for the gasket.
The paper addresses the issues of quantification and understanding of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) based on numerical modelling carried out under four European, EU, research projects from the 7FP within the Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, FCH JU, activities. It is a short review of the main projects’ achievements. The goal was to develop numerical analyses at a single cell and stack level. This information was integrated into a system model that was capable of predicting fuel cell phenomena and their effect on the system behaviour. Numerical results were analysed and favourably compared to experimental results obtained from the project partners. At the single SOFC level, a static model of the SOFC cell was developed to calculate output voltage and current density as functions of fuel utilisation, operational pressure and temperature. At the stack level, by improving fuel cell configuration inside the stack and optimising the operation conditions, thermal stresses were decreased and the lifetime of fuel cell systems increased. At the system level, different layouts have been evaluated at the steady-state and by dynamic simulations. Results showed that increasing the operation temperature and pressure improves the overall performance, while changes of the inlet gas compositions improve fuel cell performance.
This paper contains the full way of implementing a user-defined hyperelastic constitutive model into the finite element method (FEM) through defining an appropriate elasticity tensor. The Knowles stored-energy potential has been chosen to illustrate the implementation, as this particular potential function proved to be very effective in modeling nonlinear elasticity within moderate deformations. Thus, the Knowles stored-energy potential allows for appropriate modeling of thermoplastics, resins, polymeric composites and living tissues, such as bone for example. The decoupling of volumetric and isochoric behavior within a hyperelastic constitutive equation has been extensively discussed. An analytical elasticity tensor, corresponding to the Knowles stored-energy potential, has been derived. To the best of author's knowledge, this tensor has not been presented in the literature yet. The way of deriving analytical elasticity tensors for hyperelastic materials has been discussed in detail. The analytical elasticity tensor may be further used to develop visco-hyperelastic, nonlinear viscoelastic or viscoplastic constitutive models. A FORTRAN 77 code has been written in order to implement the Knowles hyperelastic model into a FEM system. The performace of the developed code is examined using an exemplary problem.