Previous onomastic research into proper names in the Internet has typically been based on traditional and classic onomastic methodology. As a result, researchers have focused on the classification of names, the analysis of their structure, etymology, or function. In this paper, this traditional approach is compared with the new possibilities afforded by medioonomastics, a fast growing method which is combining the onomastic tradition and mediolinguistics. This paper provides only an outline and is only preliminary, although some analysis is also presented. It reviews onomastic techniques and the medioonomastic analysis of the names that function within the various types of texts in the Internet. Some examples are taken from Internet memes, as well as from Facebook profiles. One of these names is the Polish given name, Janusz, which is a brilliant example of the specific new functions, connotations and general semantic values generated by the Internet. This name has gained a new meaning: ‘a typical Polish man’, ‘unfashionable man’, ‘a redneck’. Another name is the title of the Facebook profile Chujowa Pani Domu, based on the TV-series Perfekcyjna Pani Domu, as a kind of semantic and pragmatic re-construction of the latter name. In the conclusion, the necessity of considering not only the type of object-named, but also the medium and especially the Internet, is emphasized. Such studies may offer a correct procedure for analysis which include the new medioonomastic methodology.
The subject of the article is the occurrence of dialectal features in Internet nicknames. The analysis was carried out on the basis of about 2500 nicknames that contained dialectal features. The names were obtained within the years 2012–2015. In the analysis, linguistic areas were indicated in which we may notice the influence of local dialects on that layer of the Internet anthroponymy. The influence of local dialects is visible in the fact that the Internet users reach for traditional folk names as well as name models related to the folk manner of identifying a human being, e.g. Jagatka, Jantecek, Janielka od Genowefy, Cesiek z Tuchowa. Apart from references to folk anthroponymy, the Internet nicknames reflect the influence of local dialect lexis (e.g. gzub, graślok, fusyt), phonetics (janioł, Carownica, łokrutny łoptymista), inflection (Śpisok z Łapsóf, ciupaga łod tater) and word-formation, e.g. (rzemyszek, cwaniuk).
The article offers an insight into the Slavonic contemporary etymological research and its new possibilities. Modern etymology has witnessed a seachange that can be referred to as a digital breakthrough. Thanks to the Internet and electronic media the etymologists today have easier access to historicallinguistic, dialectal and onomastic sources as well as to etymological dictionaries. They also better access to many monographs and studies. Moreover, today the etymologist has no problems making use of analogous materials published in foreign languages, the obtaining of which in the past had posed a major problem. This will clearly accelerate progress in etymological research, thereby opening up new vistas for etymology. We can research effectively the origins of dialectal and colloquial words as well as words no longer in use, a task which had earlier been very difficult.
The aim of the present paper is to discuss metaphorical constructions, based on figurative uses of words, in informal Polish in the field of computers and the Internet. The study is based on the author’s own corpus, compiled on the basis of short informal texts (entries, posts) written on 32 selected Internet forums. Altogether, the corpus consists of 1,541,449 words. The paper, as the title suggests, focuses on one metaphorical formula, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE BUILDINGS. The metaphors which can be subsumed under this heading belong to the most frequent in the corpus (alongside a different type, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE HUMANS). They are discussed within the cognitive framework, as introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). Some attention will also be devoted to the possible infl uence of English upon Polish metaphorical constructions used in the area of computers and the Internet.
In this article the author follows progressive evolution in web design that has been observed in Google Maps over the last 13 years (2005–2018). The analysis includes the graphic presentation of buttons, their layout and the changes in the functionality of the website. The results of the analysis corroborate the argument that it is possible to adapt the existing concept of progressive evolution, to the needs of Internet cartography. In the process of the analysis several crucial changes were spotted, such as the fact that as a result of the technological advancement the need to scroll the map with up, down, left and down buttons disappeared, being supplanted by the dragging function. In article all the discussed changes in Google Maps as an application for desktop computers and laptops, as well as a mobile application, prove that the product has been constantly improved. In the author’s opinion, the crucial aspect is to enrich the web map in the non-invasive way to make it as user-friendly and easy to use as possible. The synthetic juxtaposition allowed one to highlight the evolution, considered by the author an important feature of the non-invasive way of introducing changes. The author notes that progressive evolution on Google Maps and other internet maps will continue. It is important that the user’s needs are noticed during these changes.
Traffic classification is an important tool for network management. It reveals the source of observed network traffic and has many potential applications e.g. in Quality of Service, network security and traffic visualization. In the last decade, traffic classification evolved quickly due to the raise of peer-to-peer traffic. Nowadays, researchers still find new methods in order to withstand the rapid changes of the Internet. In this paper, we review 13 publications on traffic classification and related topics that were published during 2009-2012. We show diversity in recent algorithms and we highlight possible directions for the future research on traffic classification: relevance of multi-level classification, importance of experimental validation, and the need for common traffic datasets.
For over twenty years psychologists have been using information and communication technology to design solutions aimed at improving mental health and quality of life of their clients or patients. One of those solutions are internet interventions. Although these interventions are commonly used in other countries, knowledge about them in Poland is limited. The aim of the article is to introduce to the topic of psychological internet interventions by describing the basic functionalities of internet interventions, the context of their use, their classification, areas where they can be applied and challenges related to their future development and wider implementation.
The objective of the study was the comparative analysis of areas of Internet behavior (use of Internet, relations and Internet Addiction) with regards to gender in seven years’ perspective. The study was conducted in two stages (2005 and 2012) among Polish students (N = 452). Results showed significant gender differences in the use of Internet. The use of Internet is no longer predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women. The higher number of contacts limited to Internet was a predictor of Internet Addiction in both men and women, but lower self -esteem in women only. Men were more prone to Internet Addiction in comparison with women and this tendency is on the rise.
Nowadays, the Internet connects people, multimedia and physical objects leading to a new-wave of services. This includes learning applications, which require to manage huge and mixed volumes of information coming from Web and social media, smart-cities and Internet of Things nodes. Unfortunately, designing smart e-learning systems able to take advantage of such a complex technological space raises different challenges. In this perspective, this paper introduces a reference architecture for the development of future and big-data-capable e-learning platforms. Also, it showcases how data can be used to enrich the learning process.
This paper presents an experimental system for remote communication between road users and traffic signs. Implemented solution consists of two modules: a transmitter (traffic sign), including novel system for remote waking-up by the passing vehicle with use of the quasi-passive (biased) diode detector circuit, and a receiver (vehicle), which is responsible for wake-up signaling and interpreting received messages. Both modules use Wi-Fi protocol operating in 2.4 GHz ISM band for sending data, and OOK signaling in 868 MHZ ISM band for sending wake-up signals. The paper provides theoretical analysis, description of design challenges and chosen solutions, and finally, laboratory measurements as well as the results of tests conducted in the systems’ target environment with a moving vehicle, confirming correct operation of the system.
Cel artykułu to pokazanie, że badania z zakresu socjologii cyfrowej są ważnym uzupełnieniem większości projektów badań społecznych oraz wprowadzenie systematyzacji pojęciowej. Omawiam różnice znaczeniowe i kategoryzacyjne pojęć. Przedstawiam podstawowe zalety badań ilościowych i Big Data, argumentując, że pełne ich wykorzystanie jest możliwe przede wszystkim dzięki uzupełnieniu badań ilościowych o thick data pochodzące z pogłębionych badań jakościowych. Postuluję, że dostęp do Big Data w większym stopniu wymusza umiejętną triangulację metodyczną i stosowanie etnograﬁi cyfrowej. Twierdzę również, że socjologia w niedalekiej przyszłości będzie musiała nie tylko uwzględniać badania społeczności internetowych w niemal każdym projekcie badawczym, oraz nie tylko wchłonąć znaczną część warsztatu badawczego z zakresu analizy danych rozwiniętego w naukach ścisłych, ale także wypracować metody łączenia Big Data z etnograﬁą cyfrową.
An available bandwidth at a link is an unused capacity. Its measuring and/or estimation is not simple in practice. On the other hand, we know that its continuous knowledge is crucial for the operation of almost all networks. Therefore, there is a continuous effort in improving the existing and developing new methods of available bandwidth measurement and/or estimation. This paper deals with these problems. Network calculus terminology allows to express an available bandwidth in terms of a service curve. The service curve is a function representing a service available for a traffic flow which can be measured/estimated in a node as well as at an endto- end connection of a network. An Internet traffic is highly unpredictable what hinders to a large extent an execution of the tasks mentioned above. This paper draws attention to pitfalls and difficulties with application of the existing network calculus methods of an available bandwidth estimation in a real Internet Service Provider (ISP) network. The results achieved in measurements have been also confirmed in simulations performed as well as by mathematical considerations presented here. They give a new perspective on the outcomes obtained by other authors and on their interpretations.
Information Technologies (IT) are most and most important factor in economical and social development of particular countries and of the whole world, therefore we often think and told about so called Information Society (IS) as a new form of socio-economical organization of the society. Most properties of IT are profitable for the people and most features of IS are positive. Nevertheless we can find also some problems arising because of too fast development of IT and some dangers connected with increasing dependability of present society on IT devices and services. In the paper selected problems connected with distance teaching and distance learning (so called elearning) are pointed out and considered. As a most important problem so called "information smog" is pointed. It is very troublesome at present and may be source of big problem in the future.
We address one of the weaknesses of the RSA ciphering systems i.e. the existence of the private keys that are relatively easy to compromise by the attacker. The problem can be mitigated by the Internet services providers, but it requires some computational effort. We propose the proof of concept of the GPGPU-accelerated system that can help detect and eliminate users’ weak keys. We have proposed the algorithms and developed the GPU-optimised program code that is now publicly available and substantially outperforms the tested CPU processor. The source code of the OpenSSL library was adapted for GPGPU, and the resulting code can perform both on the GPU and CPU processors. Additionally, we present the solution how to map a triangular grid into the GPU rectangular grid – the basic dilemma in many problems that concern pair-wise analysis for the set of elements. Also, the comparison of two data caching methods on GPGPU leads to the interesting general conclusions. We present the results of the experiments of the performance analysis of the selected algorithms for the various RSA key length, configurations of GPU grid, and size of the tested key set.
Internet of Things (IoT) will play an important role in modern communication systems. Thousands of devices will talk to each other at the same time. Clearly, smart and efficient hardware will play a vital role in the development of IoT. In this context, the importance of antennas increases due to them being essential parts of communication networks. For IoT applications, a small size with good matching and over a wide frequency range is preferred to ensure reduced size of communication devices. In this paper, we propose a structure and discuss design optimization of a wideband antenna for IoT applications. The antenna consists of a stepped-impedance feed line, a rectangular radiator and a ground plane. The objective is to minimize the antenna footprint by simultaneously adjusting all geometry parameters and to maintain the electrical characteristic of antenna at an acceptable level. The obtained design exhibits dimensions of only 3.7 mm × 11.8 mm and a footprint of 44 mm2, an omnidirectional radiation pattern, and an excellent pattern stability. The proposed antenna can be easily handled within compact communication devices. The simulation results are validated through measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.
With the increasing demand of customisation and high-quality products, it is necessary for the industries to digitize the processes. Introduction of computers and Internet of things (IoT) devices, the processes are getting evolved and real time monitoring is got easier. With better monitoring of the processes, accurate results are being produced and accurate losses are being identified which in turn helps increasing the productivity. This introduction of computers and interaction as machines and computers is the latest industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0, where the organisation has the total control over the entire value chain of the life cycle of products. But it still remains a mere idea but an achievable one where IoT, big data, smart manufacturing and cloud-based manufacturing plays an important role. The difference between 3rd industrial revolution and 4th industrial revolution is that, Industry 4.0 also integrates human in the manufacturing process. The paper discusses about the different ways to implement the concept and the tools to be used to do the same.
The aim of the paper is to explore metaphorical expressions used in informal Polish in the area of computers and the Internet. The study is based on a corpus, compiled and analyzed by the present author; the corpus consists of short informal texts (entries) taken from Polish Internet message boards devoted to computers and the Internet. Altogether, the corpus comprises around 1,500,000 words. The metaphors found in the corpus will be discussed within the cognitive framework. Special attention will be devoted to one of the most frequent conceptual metaphors found in the corpus, namely COMPUTERS ARE HUMANS, or, to be more precise, BADLY WORKING COMPUTER IS A SICK PERSON. Some place will also be devoted to the infl uence of English on metaphorical expressions (in the domain of computers and the Internet) in Polish.
Public space in geographical and social aspects. Space as a scientific and social term has many interpretations. Work organizes mutual relations between various kinds of spaces. The paper focuses on the contemporary determinants of shaping a public space in cities regarding the popularization of information and communication technologies. Attention was also paid to the metric feature of social spaces because it is usually neglected while constructing such spaces.
Recent rapid developments in information and network technology have profoundly influenced manufacturing research and its application. However, the product’s functionality and complexity of the manufacturing environments are intensifying, and organizations need to sustain the advantage of huge competitiveness in the markets. Hence, collaborative manufacturing, along with computer-based distributed management, is essential to enable effective decisions and to increase the market. A comprehensive literature review of recent and state-of-the-art papers is vital to draw a framework and to shed light on the future research avenues. In this review paper, the use of technology and management by means of collaborative and cloud manufacturing process and big data in networked manufacturing system have been discussed. A systematic review of research papers is done to draw conclusion and moreover, future research opportunities for collaborative manufacturing system were highlighted and discussed so that manufacturing enterprises can take maximum benefit.
Article present various forms of transfer of information available on the Internet. An attempt was made to show the possibility of such a selection of the knowledge sources that, taking into account user preferences, would arouse his interest, showing in parallel the intended substantive content. This commitment is shown in the context of the current assumptions of building a platform dedicated to support the needs of production processes in foundry and metallurgy.