The paper presents heat transfer calculation results concerning a control rod of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The part of the control rod, which is the object of interest, is surrounded by a mixing region of hot and cold flows and, as a consequence, is subjected to thermal fluctuations. The paper describes a numerical test which validates the method based on the solution of the inverse heat conduction problem (IHCP). The comparison of the results achieved by two methods, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and IHCP, including a description of the IHCP method used in the calculation process, shows a very good agreement between the methods.
The following paper presents the method for solving one-dimensional inverse boundary heat conduction problems. The method is used to estimate the unknown thermal boundary condition on inner surface of a thick-walled Y-branch. Solution is based on measured temperature transients at two points inside the element's wall thickness. Y-branch is installed in a fresh steam pipeline in a power plant in Poland. Determination of an unknown boundary condition allows for the calculation of transient temperature distribution in the whole element. Next, stresses caused by non-uniform transient temperature distribution and by steam pressure inside a Y-branch are calculated using the finite element method. The proposed algorithm can be used for thermal-strength state monitoring in similar elements, when it is not possible to determine a 3-D thermal boundary condition. The calculated temperature and stress transients can be used for the calculation of element durability. More accurate temperature and stress monitoring will contribute to a substantial decrease of maximal stresses that occur during transient start-up and shut-down processes.
Determining the boundary conditions of heat transfer in steel manufacturing is a very important issue. The heat transfer effect during contact of two solid bodies occurs in the continuous casting steel process. The temperature fields of solids taking part in heat transfer are described by the Fourier equation. The boundary conditions of heat transfer must be determined to get an accurate solution to the heat conduction equation. The heat flux between the tool and the object processed depends mainly on temperature, pressure and time. It is very difficult and complicated to accomplish direct identification and determination of the boundary conditions in this process. The solution to this problem may be the construction of a process model, performing measurements at a test stand, and using numerical methods. The proposed model must be verified on the basis of parameters which can easily be measured in industrial processes. One of them is temperature, which may be used in inverse methods to determine the heat transfer coefficient. This work presents the methodology for determining the heat flux between two solid bodies staying in contact. It consists of two stages – the experiment and the numerical computation. The problem was solved by using the finite element method (FEM) and a numerical program developed at AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow. The findings of the conducted research are relationships describing the value of the heat flux versus the contact time and surface temperature.
There are typically two systems in use for sound reinforcement in open areas: the central, “wall of sound” system with speakers localized at the sides of the stage, and the zone system, in which additional speakers are introduced to obtain a uniform sound pressure level throughout the area of listening. In the past two decades the line array systems gained great popularity. The main purpose of their use is to obtain a uniformly distributed sound level throughout the listening area in order to achieve good speech intelligibility. The present paper aims to present an alternative and original method of sound reinforcement in open areas which is in contrast to the above solutions. This new method allows achieving a uniformly distributed sound pressure and good speech intelligibility in the area of interest, and also allows to gain spatial sound impression that accompanies sound reproduction in concert halls. Another advantage of the proposed system is the reduction of the sound level outside the area of interest, i.e. reduction of the noise level outside the area of listening.
This paper presents a new, nondestructive method of testing brick wall dampness in wall structures. The setup was used to determine the moisture in a specially built laboratory model. Topological methods and the gradient technique are used to optimize the approach. A forward model of a wall was constructed to solve the inverse problem resulting in moisture buildup inside the wall.
The field of mechanical manufacturing is becoming more and more demanding on machining accuracy. It is essential to monitor and compensate the deformation of structural parts of a heavy-duty machine tool. The deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool is an important factor that affects machining accuracy. The base is statically indeterminate and complex in load. It is difficult to reconstruct deformation by traditional methods. A reconstruction algorithm for determining bending deformation of the base of a heavy-duty machine tool using inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM) is presented. The base is equivalent to a multi-span beam which is divided into beam elements with support points as nodes. The deflection polynomial order of each element is analysed. According to the boundary conditions, the deformation compatibility conditions and the strain data measured by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), the deflection polynomial coefficients of a beam element are determined. Using the coordinate transformation, the deflection equation of the base is obtained. Both numerical verification and experiment were carried out. The deflection obtained by the reconstruction algorithm using iFEM and the actual deflection measured by laser displacement sensors were compared. The accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm is verified.
In the paper the thermal processes proceeding in the solidifying metal are analyzed. The basic energy equation determining the course of solidification contains the component (source function) controlling the phase change. This component is proportional to the solidification rate ¶ fS/¶ t (fS Î [0, 1], is a temporary and local volumetric fraction of solid state). The value of fS can be found, among others, on the basic of laws determining the nucleation and nuclei growth. This approach leads to the so called micro/macro models (the second generation models). The capacity of internal heat source appearing in the equation concerning the macro scale (solidification and cooling of domain considered) results from the phenomena proceeding in the micro scale (nuclei growth). The function fS can be defined as a product of nuclei density N and single grain volume V (a linear model of crystallization) and this approach is applied in the paper presented. The problem discussed consists in the simultaneous identification of two parameters determining a course of solidification. In particular it is assumed that nuclei density N (micro scale) and volumetric specific heat of metal (macro scale) are unknown. Formulated in this way inverse problem is solved using the least squares criterion and gradient methods. The additional information which allows to identify the unknown parameters results from knowledge of cooling curves at the selected set of points from solidifying metal domain. On the stage of numerical realization the boundary element method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are presented.
This work deals with the inverse problem associated to 3D crack identification inside a conductive material using eddy current measurements. In order to accelerate the time-consuming direct optimization, the reconstruction is provided by the minimization of a last-square functional of the data-model misfit using space mapping (SM) methodology. This technique enables to shift the optimization burden from a time consuming and accurate model to the less precise but faster coarse surrogate model. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) is used as a fine model while the model based on the volume integral method (VIM) serves as a coarse model. The application of the proposed method to the shape reconstruction allows to shorten the evaluation time that is required to provide the proper parameter estimation of surface defects.
The paper concerns the engineering design of guide vane and runner blades of hydraulic turbines using the inverse problem on the basis of the definition of a velocity hodograph, which is based on Wu’s theory [1, 2]. The design concerns the low-head double-regulated axial Kaplan turbine model characterized by a very high specific speed. The three-dimensional surfaces of turbine blades are based on meridional geometry that is determined in advance and, additionally, the distribution of streamlines must also be defined. The principles of the method applied for the hydraulic turbine and related to its conservation equations are also presented. The conservation equations are written in a curvilinear coordinate system, which adjusts to streamlines by means of the Christoffel symbols. This leads to significant simplification of the computations and generates fast results of three-dimensional blade surfaces. Then, the solution can be found using the method of characteristics. To assess usefulness of the design and robustness of the method, numerical and experimental investigations in a wide range of operations were carried out. Afterwards, the so-called shell characteristics were determined by means of experiments, which allowed to evaluate the method for application to the low-head (1.5 m) Kaplan hydraulic turbine model with the kinematic specific speed (»260). The numerical and experimental results show the successful usage of the method and it can be concluded that it will be useful in designing other types of Kaplan and Francis turbine blades with different specific speeds.