In this contribution an optical method of controlling the state of soft biological tissues in real time, exposed to laser radiation is discussed. The method is based on the assumption that the change dynamics of the amplitude of the scattered diagnostic radiation (λ = 635 nm) is compatible with the change dynamics of the tissue inner structure exposed to the Nd:YAG laser radiation (λ = 1064 nm). In this method the measurement of the tissue temperature is omitted. Exemplary results of the laboratory research on this method and an interpretation of the results are presented.
The AISI 430 stainless steel with ferritic structure is a low cost material for replacing austenitic stainless steel because of its higher yield strength, higher ductility and also better polarisation resistance in harsh environments. The applications of AISI 430 stainless steel are limited due to insignificant ductility and some undesirable changes of magnetic properties of its weld area with different microstructures. In this research, a study has been done to explore the effects of parameters of laser welding process, namely, welding speed, laser lamping current, and pulse duration, on the coercivity of laser welded AISI 430 stainless steel. Vibrating sample magnetometery has been used used to measure the values of magnetic properties. Observation of microstructural changes and also texture analysis were implemented in order to elucidate the change mechanism of magnetic properties in the welded sections. The results indicated that the laser welded samples undergo a considerable change in magnetic properties. These changes were attributed to the significant grain growth which these grains are ideally oriented in the easiest direction of magnetization and also formation of some non-magnetic phases. The main effects of the above-mentioned factors and the interaction effects with other factors were evaluated quantitatively. The analysis considered the effect of lamping current (175-200 A), pulse duration (10-20 ms) and travel speed (2-10 mm/min) on the coercivity of laser welded samples.
In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using robotic laser welding method. Pre- and post-weld heat treatments were applied to laser welded joints. After welding stress relieving, solution heat treatment and ageing were also applied to preheated laser welded samples. Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of robotic laser welded joints were studied. Aged samples were found to be made of coarsened grains compared to microstructures of non-aged samples. There were increases in ductility and impact toughness of samples applied to ageing increased, while hardness and tensile strength of non-aged samples were higher. The highest value for tensile strength and for impact toughness in welded samples have been identified as 840 MPa and 27 J, respectively. Fractures in tensile test samples and base metal impact test samples took place in the form of ductile fracture, while laser welded impact test samples had fractures in the mode of intergranular fractures with either a quasi-cleavage type or tear ridges. EDS analysis carried out for all heat treatment conditions and welding parameters demonstrated that major element losses were not observed in base metal, HAZ and weld metal.
The automated laser welding process of 2.0 mm thick sheets of AISI 304 stainless steel was investigated. The disk laser with a beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used for bead-on-plate and next for autogenous butt joints welding. The influence of basic welding parameters such as laser power, welding speed, and focal spot position on fusion zone configuration, quality of joints, microstructure changes, and microhardness distribution across the joints were analysed and presented in this paper. The results have shown that stiffening of the 2.0 mm thick sheets is crucial for providing high quality and reproducibility of butt joint in a case of AISI 304 stainless steel due to relatively low thermal conductivity and simultaneously high thermal expansion. Relevant drop of microhardness in the weld zone was observed. The mean value of microhardness of the base metal was 230 HV0.1, while the microhardness in fusion zone of the test welds was ranged from 130 to 170 HV0.1. Additionally the microstructure changes in the weld metal and also in the heat affected zone of test joints is described.