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Abstract

A sample of late Viséan limestone from the Włodawa IG-4 borehole, east of Lublin, Poland, yielded a piece of a tooth and a few hundred well-preserved scales comparable to those of “Ctenacanthus” costellatus Traquair, 1884 from Glencartholm, Scotland, UK. Most of the scales are typical compound body scales of the ctenacanthid type. Their crowns are composed of several separate odontodes whose distal ends are turned backwards and bases are characterised by concave undersides. In the material, there are also sparse scales with similar crowns but with flat or convex bulbous bases, as well as ornamented plates and single, star-like denticles, probably from the head region. The taxonomic status of “Ctenacanthus” costellatus was analysed and a new generic name for that species, viz. Glencartius gen. nov., is proposed.
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Abstract

The study included bituminous coal seams (30 samples coal from the Bogdanka and Chełm deposits) of the Lublin Formation, the most coal-bearing strata in the best developed and recognized in terms of mining parts of the Lublin Coal Basin in Poland. High phosphorus concentrations in coal of the Lublin Formation were found (1375 g/Mg) as well as P2O5 in coal ash (2.267 wt%). The phosphorus contents in coal and coal ash from the 385 and 391 coal seams in the area of the Lubelski Coal Bogdanka Mine and in the area of its SE neighbor is the highest (max. 2.644 wt. % in coal and 6.055 wt. % of P2O5 in coal ash). It has been shown that mineral matter effectively affects phosphorus contents in coal and coal ash. At the same time, phosphate minerals (probably apatite and crandallite) present in kaolinite aggregates of tonsteins contain the most of phosphorus and have the greatest impact on the average P content in the 382, 385, 387, and 391. The secondary source of phosphorus in these coal seams and main source of phosphorus in these coal deposits that do not contain mineral matter of pyroclastic origin (378, 389, 394) may be clay minerals, which absorbed phosphorus compounds derived from organic matter released during coalification. Phosphorus-rich ash from the combustion of the Lublin Formation coal tend to be environmentally beneficial to the environment and also useful for improving the soil quality. Due to the low degree of coalification and high content of phosphorus in coal, this coals of little use for coking.
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