The paper addresses the problem of experimental studies of miniature tilt sensors based on low-range accelerometers belonging to Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS). A custom computer controlled test rig is proposed, whose kinematics allows an arbitrary tilt angle to be applied (i.e. its two components: pitch and roll over the full angular range). The related geometrical relationships are presented along with the respective uncertainties resulting from their application. Metrological features of the test rig are carefully evaluated and briefly discussed. Accuracy of the test rig is expressed in terms of the respective uncertainties, as recommended by ISO; its scope of application as well as the related limitations are indicated. Even though the test rig is mostly composed of standard devices, like rotation stages and incremental angle encoder, its performance can be compared with specialized certified machines that are very expensive. Exemplary results of experimental studies of MEMS accelerometers realized by means of the test rig are presented and briefly discussed. Few ways of improving performance of the test rig are proposed.
The advance of MEMS-based inertial sensors successfully expands their applications to small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), thus resulting in the challenge of reliable and accurate in-flight alignment for airborne MEMS-based inertial navigation system (INS). In order to strengthen the rapid response capability for UAVs, this paper proposes a robust in-flight alignment scheme for airborne MEMS-INS aided by global navigation satellite system (GNSS). Aggravated by noisy MEMS sensors and complicated flight dynamics, a rotation-vector-based attitude determination method is devised to tackle the in-flight coarse alignment problem, and the technique of innovation-based robust Kalman filtering is used to handle the adverse impacts of measurement outliers in GNSS solutions. The results of flight test have indicated that the proposed alignment approach can accomplish accurate and reliable in-flight alignment in cases of measurement outliers, which has a significant performance improvement compared with its traditional counterparts.
The development of digital microphones and loudspeakers adds new and interesting possibilities of their applications in different fields, extended from industrial, medical to consumer audio markets. One of the rapidly growing field of applications is mobile multimedia, such as mobile phones, digital cameras, laptop and desktop PCs, etc. The advances have also been made in digital audio, particularly in direct digital transduction, so it is now possible to create the all-digital audio recording and reproduction chains potentially having several advantages over existing analog systems.
The paper expounds relevant results of some of the present author’s experi- ments defining the strapdown IMU sensors’ errors and their propagation into and within DGPS/IMU. In order to deal with this problem, the author conducted both the laboratory and field-based experiments. In the landborne laboratory the stand-alone Low-Cost IMU MotionPak MKII was verified in terms of the accelerometer bias, scale factor, gyroscope rotation parameters and internal temperature cross-correlations. The waterborne field-trials based on board dedicated research ships at the lake and at the busy small sea harbour were augmented by the landborne ones. These experiments conducted during the small, average, and high dynamics of movement provided comparative sole- GPS, stand-alone DGPS and integrated DGPS/IMU solution error analysis in terms of the accuracy and the smoothness of the solution. This error estimation was also carried on in the context of the purposely-erroneous incipient DGPS/IMU initialisation and alignment and further in the circumstances of on-flight alignment improvement in the absence of the signal outages. Moreover, the lake-waterborne tests conducted during extremely low dynamics of movement informed about the deterioration of the correctly initialised DGPS/IMU solution with reference to the stand-alone DGPS solution and sole- GPS solution. The above-mentioned field experiments have checked positively the DGPS /MKI research integrating software prepared during the Polish/German European Union Research Project and modified during the subsequent Project supported by the Polish Committee for Scientific Research.
In this work the construction of experimental setup for MEMS/NEMS deflection measurements is presented. The system is based on intensity fibre optic detector for linear displacement sensing. Furthermore the electronic devices: current source for driving the light source and photodetector with wide-band preamplifier are presented.
This paper gives a detailed electroacoustic study of a new generation of monolithic CMOS micromachined electrodynamic microphone, made with standard CMOS technology. The monolithic integration of the mechanical sensor with the electronics using a standard CMOS process is respected in the design, which presents the advantage of being inexpensive while having satisfactory performance. The MEMS microphone structure consists mainly of two planar inductors which occupy separate regions on substrate. One inductor is fixed; the other can exercise out-off plane movement. Firstly, we detail the process flow, which is used to fabricate our monolithic microphone. Subsequently, using the analogy between the three different physical domains, a detailed electro-mechanical-acoustic analogical analysis has been performed in order to model both frequency response and sensitivity of the microphone. Finally, we show that the theoretical microphone sensitivity is maximal for a constant vertical position of the diaphragm relative to the substrate, which means the distance between the outer and the inner inductor. The pressure sensitivity, which is found to be of the order of a few tens of μV/Pa, is flat within a bandwidth from 50 Hz to 5 kHz.