The paper discusses the discovery of a single lithic artefact from the Dąbrowa Tarnowska 37 site. The lithic, based on its technological and typological characteristics, can be associated with the Middle Palaeolithic. This is an important find due to the fact that, in the area of the Sandomierz Basin, settlement of that period is confirmed by only a few single finds discovered exclusively in the eastern and central parts of the basin. The lithic has been defined as a Levallois point, although a different interpretation, such as its being a by-product of Levallois core shaping, can not be excluded. It was made of Jurassic flint of undetermined provenance, probably originating from moraines. Precise dating of the find is not possible. It was been found on the surface of fluvioglacial deposit of South Polish glaciation (Elsterian) age. The chronological framework of this glaciation preceded the well-proven use of Levallois techniques in the south of Poland (Biśnik cave, Ciemna cave, Kraków-Zwierzyniec 1).
Obłazowa Cave was first excavated in 1985, and is best known for the discoveries of remains of settlement from the time of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic. The traces of most recent settlement in the cave, found in the uppermost part of the stratigraphy can be attributed to Magdalenian settlement. Results of latest excavation brought more precise date this occupation face. In years 2016 and 2017 in layer III of the cave a series of artifacts, and a small sandstone female figurine were found.
Middle Palaeolithic land exploitation strategies remain as yet an unexplored element in our understanding of Neanderthal behavioural patterns. Many different approaches to the problem were so far developed. Among others, biological, economic or environmental data concerning Neanderthals were considered as relevant. One of the focus points in such divagations is the issue of raw materials economy as undertaken by Neanderthals. The long-distance transport of knappable minerals (as a basis for the stone tools production) allows an insight into the economy and understanding of the size of land in use by Neanderthals group. Addressing this particular issue from the perspective of the Western Carpathian Mountains allows us to track the trails of mobility or trace possible contact zones between groups, and also to state, that at least in some circumstances Neanderthal groups were infiltrating and possibly crossing this highly elevated area on the S-N axis.