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Abstract

The issues connected with the complex design of various facilities, including up-to-date boiler equipment as well as the ways of organizing the space around them, are the reasons why there is often a lack of room for mounting a flowmeter in accordance with the recommendations of manufacturers. In most cases the problem is associated with ensuring sufficient lengths of straight pipe leading into and out of a flowmeter. When this condition cannot be fulfilled, the uncertainty of measurement increases above the value guaranteed by the manufacturer of the flowmeter. This sort of operation problem has encouraged the authors of this paper to undertake research aimed at the analysis of applicability of averaging Pitot tubes in the areas of flow disturbance.
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Abstract

The purpose of the work was to experimentally determine the characteristics of the prototype of a Roto-Jet pump (the Pitot tube pump) during its operation under conditions typical for the domestic micro power plant. The low-boiling fluid, sold under the trade name of HFE7100 and characterised by a zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) coefficient, was used as a working medium in the organic Rankine cycle (ORC). An electric thermal oil heater with a maximum power of 2×24 kWe was used as a heat source. The pump of Roto-Jet type was specially designed for the operation with the following rated parameters of the thermodynamic cycle: nominal flow rate of the working fluid 0.17 kg/s, operating pressure 1.2 MPa. The pump was put under load using an expansion valve that simulated the operation of an expansion machine. The article discusses thermodynamic and flow conditions to be met by the pumping engine as well as results of the experimental research. Moreover, the article includes the operational characteristics of the ORC installation and the Roto-Jet pump obtained during the operation with the target working medium – HFE7100. The engineering problems the authors of this article faced when designing and testing the pumping engine prototype are also presented.
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Abstract

Manual measurements of distribution of gas velocity in conduits of flue gas installations using systems with differential pressure sensors of velocity are often performed for the requirements of determining emissions of dust pollutants from industrial process plants to the atmosphere. The aim is to determine an axial velocity profile. Flows in measuring sections are not always coaxial along the run of the duct; they are characterized by different directions of the velocity vector at various measuring points. The determination of actual directions of vectors of local velocities giving a guarantee of an accurate calculation of the axial velocity is often not possible from the technical point of view and the measurement of the velocity is carried out with the parallel setting of the sensor head in relation to the axis and the walls of the conduit. Then the knowledge of the directional sensitivity of the applied velocity sensor allows either to eliminate the axial velocity measurement error or to take it into account by the uncertainty of this measurement. For specific situations of two-dimensional variation of direction of the velocity vector, the directional sensitivity characteristics and in consequence the characteristics of error have been determined for three sensors adopted to tests: a zero pressure dust sampling probe with the anemometric function as an element of the gravimetric dust sampler and comparatively - two commonly used Pitot tubes: types S and L.
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