Placoid and polyodontode scales of stem chondrichthyans have been found in the early Lochkovian “Ditton Group” of the Brown Clee Hill district, Shropshire, England and at Talgarth, south Wales. One of the forms is assigned to a new species of Altholepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1997, a genus already recognised from Lochkovian shallow marine deposits in Celtiberia, Spain and the Northwest Territories, Canada as well as the type locality in Podolia, Ukraine. Altholepis salopensis sp. nov. is based on small polyodontode scales with typically three to eight high odontodes; the scale form was previously considered to belong to acanthodian “Nostolepis” robusta (Brotzen, 1934). The structure of other scales formerly assigned to “Nostolepis” robusta has led us to erect a new genus Jolepis for this scale form, which differs from Altholepis in lacking an ordered layout of odontodes. Jolepis robusta (Brotzen, 1934), originally (and possibly still) considered to be an acanthodian, is also known from the Baltic countries, Russia, and northern Germany (ex erratic limestones). Scales of acanthodian Parexus recurvus Agassiz, 1845, and/or possibly from the stem chondrichthyan Seretolepis elegans Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 (scales of these two taxa are barely distinguishable), and of stem chondrichthyan Polymerolepis whitei Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 are also present. Altholepis, Jolepis gen. nov., Seretolepis Karatajūtė-Talimaa, 1968 and Polymerolepis Karatajūtė- Talimaa, 1968 are found in marine deposits elsewhere; the British occurrence of these taxa adds to the debate on the sedimentological origins of the Lower Old Red Sandstone deposits in the Welsh Borderland. The geographic range of several early sharks is now known to extend around the Old Red Sandstone continent and beyond.
The association of phytoplasma was investigated in sand olive [Dodonaea viscosa ssp. Angustifolia (L. f.) J.G. West], cowpea [Vigna unguiclata (L.)] Wap and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) plants exhibiting witches broom, fasciation and little leaf symptoms, respectively. Sequence analysis of ~1.7 kb DNA fragments amplified by P1/P7 primer set confirmed the association of ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia’ within symptomatic alfalfa, while ‘Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis’ was associated within cowpea and sand olive.
Two strength-age hardening aluminum-lithium alloys: Al-2.3wt%Li and Al-2.2wt%Li-0.1wt%Zr in two different heat treatment conditions: solution state (S) and additionally in aging state (A) were severely plastically deformed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) method to produce ultrafine – grained structure. Two thermo-mechanical treatments were used: (S+A+RCMR) and (S+RCMR+A+RCMR). To investigate the combined effect of plastic deformation and heat treatment, tensile tests were performed. Microstructural observations were undertaken using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with electron backscattering diffraction detector (EBSD). Based on the obtained results, it can be deduced that maximum mechanical properties as: yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) could be achieved when the microstructure of alloys is in (S+A+RCMR) state. For samples in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state, ductility is higher than for (S+A+RCMR) state. The microstructural results shows that the favourable conditions for decreasing grain size of alloys is (S+A+RCMR) state. Additionally, in this state is much greater dislocation density than for (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state. The microstructure of alloys in (S+RCMR+A+RCMR) state is characterized by grains/subgrains with higher average diameter and with higher misorientation angles compared with (S+A+RCMR) state.
One of the most common reasons for horse lameness is subchondral bone cysts (SBCs), which are especially evident in young horse athletes. It is believed that SBC development is strongly associated with an individual’s bone growth and/or bone microstructure impairment. Current methods of SBC treatment include pharmacological treatment or surgical procedures which may allow the bone within the cyst to rebuild and be restored to properly developed bone tissue. Thus, we propose filling the SBCs with a 3D complex of alginate hydrogel and autologous adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). We have observed at the in vitro level, that this hydrogel complex induces osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential through the upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein, osteopontin, collagen type I and aggrecan mRNA levels. Moreover, we detected the creation of a 3D extracellular matrix (EM). To investigate the complex in vivo, we chose 8 horses of varying age suffering from SBC, which resulted in lameness, to undergo experimental surgery. We documented the horses’ clinical appearance, lameness and radiographic appearance, to determine that there was clinical improvement in 87.75% of the patients (n=7, out of 8 horses) 6 months postoperatively and 100% (n=8, out of 8 horses) a year after surgery. These results are promising for the potential of this procedure to become the standard in SBC treatment.
Design of gating system is an important factor in obtaining defect-free casting. One of the casting defects is a porosity caused by internal shrinkage in solidification process. Prediction of the internal shrinkage porosity in the femoral stem of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) is investigated based on the gating system design. The objective of this research is to get the best gating system between three gating system designs. Three gating system designs of the femoral stem were simulated in an investment casting method. The internal shrinkage porosity occurs on the largest part and near the ingate of the femoral stem. The gating system design that has ingates cross section area: 78.5; 157; and 128.5 mm2 has the least of the internal shrinkage porosity. This design has the most uniform solidification in the entire of the femoral stem. An experiment is conducted to validate the simulation data. The results of internal shrinkage porosity in the three gating system designs in the simulation were compared with the experiment. Based on the comparison, the trend of internal shrinkage porosity at the three gating system designs in the simulation agrees with the experiment. The results of this study will aid in the elimination of casting defect.
The samples of the CuCr0.6 alloy in the solution treated and additionally in aging states were severely plastically deformed by compression with oscillatory torsion (COT) method to produce ultrafine – grained structure. The samples were processed by using process parameters as: frequency of torsion (f = 1.6 Hz), compression speed (v = 0.04 mm/s), angle torsion (α = ±6°), height reduction (Δh = 7 mm). The total effective strain was εft = 40. The microstructure has been analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) Hitachi HD-2300A equipped with a cold field emission gun at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV. The quantitative microstructure investigations as disorientation angles were performed using a FEI INSPECT F scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a cold field emission gun and a electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) detector. The mechanical properties were determined using MST QTest/10 machine equipped with digital image correlation (DIC). The COT processed alloy previously aged at 500°C per 2h shows high mechanical strength, ultimate tensile strength UTS: 521 MPa and yield tensile strength YS: 488 MP attributed to the high density of coherent precipitates and ultrafine grained structure.
The Fleming Fjord Formation (Jameson Land, East Greenland) documents a diverse assemblage of terrestrial vertebrates of Late Triassic age. Expeditions from the turn of the 21st century have discovered many important fossils that form the basis of our current knowledge of Late Triassic Greenlandic faunas. However, due to the scarcity and incompleteness of the fossils and their insufficient study, our understanding of the taxonomic diversity of the Fleming Fjord Formation is hindered. Here, we report the preliminary findings of a Polish−Danish expedition to the Fleming Fjord Formation that took place in 2014. Three areas were visited – the fairly well known MacKnight Bjerg and Wood Bjerg and the virtually unexplored Liasryggen. MacKnigth Bjerg and Liasryggen yielded fossils which promise to significantly broaden our knowledge of vertebrate evolution in the Late Triassic. Stem−mammal remains were discovered at Liasryggen. Other fossils found at both sites include remains of actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, temnospondyl amphibians and various archosaurs (including early dinosaurs). Numerous vertebrate trace fossils, including coprolites, pseudosuchian footprints, theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur tracks, were also discovered. Newly discovered skeletal remains as well as abundant trace fossils indicate higher tetrapod diversity in the Late Triassic of Greenland than previously thought. Trace fossils also allow inferences of early theropod and sauropodomorph dinosaur behaviour.
O b j e c t i v e: The main goal of our studies was to investigate the eff ect exerted by pulsed electromagnetic filed (PEMF) on adipocytokines secretion in cell culture supernatants from rat adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) grown on varied energy-rich diet. Off spring and adult animals were randomly selected for two types of experimental diets: low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 7 weeks. After the diet period, serum glucose level was measured, ADSCs were isolated from adipose tissues from different locations. ADSCs from all experimental groups were exposed to PEMF, supernatants collected and adipokines level was determined. R e s u l t s: HF diet feed in pups/adult animals elevated blood glucose level and increased the level of adiponectin (Apn) and leptin of both genders and age measured in serum. ADSCs cell cultures originated from female pups on LF diet and exposed to PEMF released large amounts of Apn. PEMF effect exerted on Apn release was also observed in ADSCs isolated from male pups HF diet. ADSCs from female pups on LF diet exposed to PEMF released smaller amounts of leptin in comparison to cell cultures without PEMF treatment. PEMF exposure of ADSCs cell cultures originated from female adults on LF diet decreased release of Apn, contrary adult male on LF diet ADSCs under PEMF treatment produced more leptin. PEMF treated male HF diet-originated ADSCs cultures released significantly more leptin than controls. C o n c l u s i o n: Our results suggest that PEMF exposure is responsible for metabolic physiological balance effects obtained in ADSCs cultures originating from adult animals on HF diet.
The future of food security in Africa is being severely threatened due to an exponential increase in population, which is almost three times the increase of food production. Maize production is constrained by stem borers which cause significant yield losses. Yield losses can be further compounded by higher temperatures due to climate changes, which are expected to increase the population of maize stem borers. While several methods have been employed in stem borer management, there is still significant damage caused by maize stem borers. This necessitates better control methods including the adoption of recent biotechnological advancement in RNA interference (RNAi) technology. This review highlights evidence of an increase in the stem borer population as well as the foreseen decline in maize production worldwide due to the effects of climatic changes. Furthermore, we have drawn attention to improved methods that have been used to control stem borers in maize production as well as a reluctant acceptance of traditional biotechnology in Africa. Finally, we suggest the application of alternative RNA interference techniques to breed maize for efficient pest control in order to achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable maize production.
Introduction: Uterine leiomyoma is the most widespread benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age. There are still gaps in the understanding of its pathogenesiss. Telocytes are unique cells described in greater than 50 different locations inside the human body. The functional relationship of cells could clarify the pathogenesis of leiomyomata. In the current study, we focused on the identification of telocytes in all regions of the human uterus to explain their involvement in leiomyoma development. Materials and Methods: Tissue samples from a healthy and myomatous uterus were stained for c-kit, tryptase, CD34 and PDGFRα to identify telocytes. Routine histology was performed to analyze tissue morphology and collagen deposits. Results: Telocytes were detected in the cervix, corpus of the uterus and leiomyoma. The density of telocytes in fibroid foci was reduced compared with normal myometrium. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the existence of telocytes in all parts of the human body affected and unaff ected by leiomyoma of the uterus. In addition, telocytes were also present in leiomyoma foci. Our results suggest that the reduced density of telocytes is important for the pathomechanisms of myometrial growth, demonstrating its value as a main component of the myomatous architecture.
Cell culture transplantation is very promising in the treatment of various diseases. Cells obtained from a number of sources have been analysed to provide a basis for further studies in the area of regenerative medicine. The objective of the study was to compare morphological and phenotypic changes in cat adipose tissue and bone marrow cell cultures from the first to fifth passages. Adipose tissue and bone marrow were used to obtain cell cultures (coming from 3 cats) using standard methods with own modification. Phenotype changes were monitored by CD-marker identification and CD pan-keratin. The cytogenetic analysis was performed on 50 metaphase plates of cell cultures from the first to fifth passage. Cytogenetic assays showed that the adipose tissue cell culture (ATCC) at all passages was more stable than the bone marrow cell culture (BMCC).