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Abstract

Grimmia andreaeopsis C. Muell., a species described from sterile material from the Chukotka Peninsula, is redescribed and illustrated The species is actually a member of the genus Schistidium. It can be distinguished from its closest relatives, viz. species of S. strictum complex, by the possession of a unique combination of characters: (1) inky black coloration of gametophytes; (2) strongly and asymmetrically keeled, rapidly wide-spreading to squarrose when moist, leaves; (3) cells entirely smooth, very incrassate and strongly nodulose nearly to the base of the lamina: (4) a costa totally smooth or only occasionally slightly roughened on the back below the apex, but never scabrous with conical papillae; (5) leaf margins always entire; (6) peristome teeth bluntly acuminate. Unlike most rupestral species of Schistidium it grows in wet arctic fens. S. holmenianum Steere & Brassard, a species known to be widely distributed in the Nearctic, and Racomitrium depressum Lesq. var. nigricans Kindb., a variety described from Labrador and Hudson Bay. are synonymous with S. andreaeopsis (C. Muell.) Laz. A comparison of S andreaeopsis with the Andean-Subantarctic S. anqustifolium (Mitt.) Herz is made and these species are considered to be closely related, but not conspecific, bipolar counterparts. Also, a comparison with the South Georgian S. urnulaceum (C. Muell.) Bell and the Holarctic species of S. strictum complex, which are characterized by having similar leaf cell patterns, is made. S. andreaeopsis has a circumpolar distribution, mainly within the High Arctic. In addition to the Nearctic, the species is known to occur in Svalbard, North Land, Taymyr Peninsula, Yakutia, Wrangel Island, and on the Chukotka Peninsula.
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Abstract

Schistidium urnulaceum (C. Muell.) B. G. Bell, a species hitherto known from the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia, is reported for the first time from King George Island, South Shetland Islands, in the Antarctic botanical zone. A description of the species together with illustrations, notes on habitat and a distribution map are provided. Taxonomic notes to assist in the identification of S. urnulaceum are also given.
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Abstract

Schistidium cupulare (Müll. Hal.) Ochyra, an obscure and poorly known species originally described from Îles Kerguelen as Grimmia cupularis Müll. Hal. and subsequently reported from a single station in the Antarctic, is re-assessed taxonomically. It is considered to be a distinct species of sect. Conferta, closely related to S. amblyophyllum (Müll. Hal.) Ochyra et Hertel, from which it differs in its distal- and mid-leaf areolation of short, isodiametric, quadrate to shortly rectangular cells; stouter costa, 50–75 μm wide in the distal and median part, semi-terete to subrectangular in cross-section and prominently convex on the dorsal surface, (2–)3-stratose above, 3(–4)-stratose below; leaf margins regularly 2–3-stratose in 1–3 rows of cells forming fleshy, bulging limbidia; presence of a distinct central strand; and finely roughened to nearly smooth peristome teeth. S. celatum (Cardot) B.G. Bell from South Georgia and Tierra del Fuego is considered to be conspecific with S. cupulare. Some details of the type specimens of both species are illustrated. The geographical range of S. cupulare is evaluated and it is considered to be an amphiatlantic subantarctic species. A new record of the species from Livingston Island in the Antarctic is provided and a key to species of Schistidium in Antarctica is given.
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Abstract

Nematodes occurring in the Antarctic bony fishes are reviewed, and keys based on morphological features are presented. Five valid species: Ascarophis nototheniae Johnston et Mawson, 1945; Cystidicola beatriceinsleyae (Holloway et Klewer, 1969); Dichelyne fraseri (Baylis, 1929); Hysterothylacium aduncum (Rudolphi, 1802); Paranisakiopsis weddelliensis Rocka, 2002, and one unnamed form, Capillaria (Procapillaria) sp., have been reported from the Antarctic teleosts. Also, larval anisakids, in the adult stage parasites of marine mammals, birds and fishes, occur commonly in the Antarctic and Subantarctic bony fishes. They belong to Contracaecum spp., Anisakis spp., Pseudoterranova decipiens (Krabbe, 1878) and Hysterothylacium aduncum.
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