Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been extensively used in aircraft turbine-engine components, aircraft structural components, aerospace fasteners, high performance automotive parts, marine applications, medical devices and sports equipment. However, wide-spread use of this alloy has limits because of difficulty to machine it. One of the major difficulties found during machining is development of poor quality of surface in the form of higher surface roughness. The present investigation has been concentrated on studying the effects of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut on surface roughness of the product during turning of titanium alloy. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to collect data for surface roughness. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of the cutting parameters. The model equation is also formulated to predict surface roughness. Optimal values of cutting parameters were determined through response surface methodology. A 100% desirability level in the turning process for economy was indicated by the optimized model. Also, the predicted values that were obtained through regression equation were found to be in close agreement to the experimental values.
In this paper the effects of titanium addition in an amount up to 0.13 wt.% have been investigated to determine their effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Thin Wall Vermicular Graphite Iron Castings (TWVGI). The study was performed for thinwalled iron castings with 3-5 mm wall thickness and for the reference casting with 13 mm. Microstructural changes were evaluated by analyzing quantitative data sets obtained by image analyzer and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Metallographic examinations show that in thin-walled castings there is a significant impact of titanium addition to vermicular graphite formation. Thinwalled castings with vermicular graphite have a homogeneous structure, free of chills, and good mechanical properties. It may predispose them as a potential use as substitutes for aluminum alloy castings in diverse applications.
The paper concerns the processes connected with the formation of chromium white cast iron microstructure. The influence of titanium and strontium on the alloy crystallization has been described using TDA method and EDS analysis. Conducted experiments allowed the determination of the selected additions influence on the microstructure of examined alloys. TDA analysis enabled indication of the characteristic temperatures of thermal effects for samples with strontium and titanium and the comparison of results for the reference sample without additions. The results of TDA test also included the analysis of the temperature first derivative values, which presented interesting differences as well. The scanning microscopy observation clearly indicated the difference between the effect of strontium and titanium on the alloy microstructure. The EDS analysis helped to identify the chemical composition of the evolving phases and confirmed the strontium presence in the eutectic. Experimental results allowed to draw reliable conclusions about the effect of applied additions on the crystallization and microstructure of chromium cast iron.
The Ti15Mo alloy has been studied towards long-term corrosion performance in saline solution at 37°C using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The physical and chemical characterization of the material were also investigated. The as-received Ti15Mo alloy exhibits a single β-phase structure. The thickness of single-layer structured oxide presented on its surface is ~4 nm. Impedance measurements revealed that the Ti15Mo alloy is characterized by spontaneous passivation in the solution containing chloride ions and formation of a double-layer structured oxide composed of a dense interlayer being the barrier layer against corrosion and porous outer layer. The thickness of this oxide layer, estimated based on the impedance data increases up to ~6 nm during 78 days of exposure. The observed fall in value of the log|Z|f = 0.01 Hz indicates a decrease in pitting corrosion resistance of Ti15Mo alloy in saline solution along with the immersion time. The detailed EIS study on the kinetics and mechanism of corrosion process and the capacitive behavior of the Ti15Mo electrode | passive layer | saline solution system was based on the concept of equivalent electrical circuit with respect to the physical meaning of the applied circuit elements. Potentiodynamic studies up to 9 V vs. SCE and SEM analysis show no presence of pitting corrosion what indicates that the Ti15Mo alloy is promising biomaterial to long-term medical applications.
This article deals with the testing of surface layers produced on technical titanium Ti99.2 under glow discharge conditions. In order to determine the effect of process temperature on the produced surface layers, nitriding processes were carried out at 700°C and 800°C and for 3 and 5 hours. The research results on evaluating the properties of the obtained surface layers and the characterization of their morphology were presented. The impact of the adopted nitriding process variant on the quality of the obtained layers was evaluated. It was demonstrated that the use of the supplementary potential during the ion nitriding process reduces the unwanted edge effect, which results in a significant increase in the homogeneity of the nitrided layers and improves the functional properties of the technical titanium Ti99.2.
The paper analyses the as-cast state structure of chromium cast iron designed for operation under harsh impact-abrasive conditions. In the process of chromium iron castings manufacture, very strong influence on the structure of this material have the parameters of the technological process. Among others, adding to the Fe-Cr-C alloy the alloying elements like tungsten and titanium leads to the formation of additional carbides in the structure of this cast iron, which may favourably affect the casting properties, including the resistance to abrasive wear.
Air abrasion process is used for cleaning casting surface of prosthetic components, and to prepare the surface of these elements for the application of veneering items. Its side effect, however, is that abrasive particles are embedded in the treated surface, which can be up to 30% of the surface and it constitutes the side effect of this procedure. Such a significant participation of foreign material can not be indifferent to the properties of the surface. Embedded particles can be the place of stress concentration causing cracking of ceramics, and may deteriorate corrosion resistance by forming corrosive microlinks. In the latter cases, it would be advisable to remove elements embedded into the surface. The simplest method is chemical etching or electrochemical one. Nevertheless, these procedures should not significantly change the parameters of the surface. Among many possible reagents only a few fulfills all the above conditions. In addition, processing should not impair corrosion resistance of titanium, which is one of the most important factors determining its use as a prosthetic restoration in the mouth. The study presented results of corrosion resistance of titanium used to make prosthetic components by means of casting method, which were subjected to chemical processing designed to remove the embedded abrasive particles. The aim of the study was to investigate whether etching with selected reagents affects the corrosion resistance of titanium castings. For etching the following reagents were used: 30% HNO3 + 3% HF + H2O, HNO3+ HF+ glycerol (1:2:3), 4% HF in H2O2, 4% HF in H2O, with a control sandblasted sample, not subjected to etching. Tests demonstrated that the etching affected corrosion properties of test samples, in each case the reduction of the corrosion potential occurred - possibly due to the removal of particles of Al2O3 from the surface and activation of the surface. None of the samples underwent pitting corrosion as a result of polarization to 9 V. Values of the polarization resistance, and potentiodynamic characteristics indicated that the best corrosion resistance exhibited the samples after etching in a mixture of 4% solution of HF in H2O2. They showed very good passivation of the surface.
In this work, the change of the structure and microhardness of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after remelting and remelting with SiC alloing by electric arc welding (GTAW method) was studied. The current intensity equal 100 A and fixed scan speed rate equal 0,2 m/min has been used to remelting surface of the alloy. Change of structure were investigated by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microhardness test showed, that the remelting of the surface does not change the hardness of the alloy. Treated by GTAW SiC alloying leads to the formation of hard (570 HV0, 1) surface layer with a thickness of 2 mm. The resulting surface layer is characterized by diverse morphology alloyed zone. The fracture of alloy after conventional heat treatment, similarly to fracture after remelting with GTAW is characterized by extremely fine dimples of plastic deformation. In the alloyed specimens the intergranular and crystalline fracture was identified.
Design of gating system is an important factor in obtaining defect-free casting. One of the casting defects is a porosity caused by internal shrinkage in solidification process. Prediction of the internal shrinkage porosity in the femoral stem of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) is investigated based on the gating system design. The objective of this research is to get the best gating system between three gating system designs. Three gating system designs of the femoral stem were simulated in an investment casting method. The internal shrinkage porosity occurs on the largest part and near the ingate of the femoral stem. The gating system design that has ingates cross section area: 78.5; 157; and 128.5 mm2 has the least of the internal shrinkage porosity. This design has the most uniform solidification in the entire of the femoral stem. An experiment is conducted to validate the simulation data. The results of internal shrinkage porosity in the three gating system designs in the simulation were compared with the experiment. Based on the comparison, the trend of internal shrinkage porosity at the three gating system designs in the simulation agrees with the experiment. The results of this study will aid in the elimination of casting defect.
Titanium nitride (TiN) is regarded as a potential biomaterial for blood-contact applications. TiN thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition with the Nd:YAG laser on biologically applied polyurethane. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study of 250 nm thick films revealed columnar structure. Such films were observed to be brittle, which led to crack formation and secondary nucleation of microcolumn. TEM studies showed a kinetic mechanism of growth (columnar) in films of 250 nm thickness. It was stated that thinner films were much smoother and uniform than the thicker ones, which could be associated with the surface diffusion mechanism to appear. In order to improve the coatings elasticity, the thickness was reduced to 50 nm, which limited the deposition mechanism operation to the early stage. TEM cross-section observation revealed elastic properties of thin films. A biological test showed that TiN surface film produced on polyurethane is characterized by good biocompatibility and decreased surface affinity for cell adhesion. Films of 0.25 and 0.5 1m thick of TiN were selected for theoretical finite element modelling (FEM) using ADINA program. The micro cracks formation predicted in simulation was verified by phenomena observed in microstructure examinations.
Advanced metallic material processes (titanium) are used or developed for the production of heavily loaded flying components (in fan blade construction). The article presents one process for diagnosing the blade interior by means of laser ultrasonography. The inspection of these parts, which are mainly made of titanium, requires the determination of the percentage of bonded grain sizes from around 10 to 30 μm. This is primarily due to the advantages of a high signal-to-noise ratio and good detection sensitivity. The results of the research into the internal blade structure are attached.
The tribological behavior of the PVD-TiAlN coated carbide inserts in dry sliding against two-phase (α-β) titanium alloy,Ti6Al4V grade, was investigated. A modified pin-on-disc device was used to conduct experiments under variable normal load and sliding speed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray micro-analyses by EDS were applied for observations of wear scars and wear products. It was revealed that the increase of sliding speed contributes to decreasing the friction coefficient under a low normal force, whereas the increase of the normal loading causes the friction coefficient is less sensitive to changes in the sliding speed and its values are equal to μ = 0.26-0.34. The adhesive nature of wear along with severe abrasive action of the Ti alloy were documented.
Paper presents the results of studies on primary crystallization and wear resistance of high chromium cast iron inoculated with ferrotitanium intended for work in abrasive conditions. Primary crystallization was examined with use of TDA method, wear tests of the samples were conducted using the modified pin-on-disk method.
The paper presents results of Ti-addition to High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) on the structure and selected mechanical properties. For this study casted two sets of cylinders with dimensions ø20 mm, ø15 mm x 250 mm, for the High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI) and with the 4% by mass Ti-addition. Melts were performed in the induction furnace crucible capacity of 15 kg. During the heats the cup with installed S type thermocouple was poured to record the cooling curves. The cylinders were subjected to the static bending strength test. Samples for the test microstructure and Rockwell hardness were cut from the cylinders. The study shows that the addition of titanium had an impact on the structure and thus the properties of High Chromium Cast Iron (HCCI). In subsequent studies, through an appropriate choice of chemical composition and proper process control, it is planned to obtain in the structure the titanium carbides TiC and chromium carbides with type (Cr, Fe)7C3.
The present investigation focuses on the study of the influence of titanium inoculation on tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron. Studies of tribological properties of High Chromium Cast Iron, in particularly the wear resistance are important because of the special application of this material. High Chromium Cast Iron is widely used for parts that require high wear resistance for example the slurry pumps, brick dies, several pieces of mine drilling equipment, rock machining equipment, and similar ones. Presented research described the effects of various amounts of Fe-Ti as an inoculant for wear resistance. The results of wear resistance were collated with microstructural analysis. The melts were conducted in industrial conditions. The inoculation was carried out on the stream of liquid metal. The following amount of inoculants have been used; 0.17% Fe-Ti, 0.33% Fe-Ti and 0.66% Fe-Ti. The tests were performed on the machine type MAN. The assessment of wear resistance was made on the basis of the weight loss. The experimental results indicate that inoculation improve the wear resistance. In every sample after inoculation the wear resistance was at least 20% higher than the reference sample. The best result, thus the smallest wear loss was achieved for inoculation by 0.66% Fe-Ti. There is the correlation between the changing in microstructure and wear resistance. With greater amount of titanium the microstructure is finer. More fine carbides do not crumbling so quickly from the matrix, improving the wear resistance.
The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the effect of shot peening on the condition of the surface layer and abrasion resistance of specimens made of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) process. The specimens have been produced by means of EOSINT M280 system dedicated for laser sintering of metal powders and their surfaces have been subjected to the shot peening process under three different working pressures (0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 MPa) and by means of three different media i.e. CrNi steel shot, crushed nut shells and ceramic balls. The specimens have been subjected to profilometric analysis, to SEM examinations, microhardness tests and to tribological tests on ball-on-disc stand in Ringer fluid environment. The general results of all tests indicate to favourable effect of shot peening process on the hardness and tribological performance of titanium alloy.
In this paper the chemo-rheological behavior of aqueous TiC suspension and physical properties of gelcasted green body were investigated. The monomer system used in this project was acrylamide (AM) and methylenebisacrylamide (MBAM). Polymerisation reaction was promoted by the addition of tetramethyl ethylenediamine as a catalyst and ammonium persulfate as a initiator. The effects of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH), polyethylenimine (PEI) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) dispersants on the premix solution containing TiC powder have been studied via observation of the zeta potential and rheological behavior. The optimal amount of TMAH was achieved 0.4 wt.% at pH 9. The chemorheological results showed that the gelation time decreased and viscosity increased with increasing the monomer content, solid loading, initiator amount and temperature. The highest flexural strength of gel casted green body was obtained with 50 vol% solid loading and 25 wt.% monomers content.
Commercially pure titanium is less expensive, generally more corrosion resistant and lower in strength than its alloys, and is not heat-treatable. The use of Ti and its alloys as construction materials under severe friction and wear conditions is limited due to their poor tribological properties. Nevertheless, proper addition of hard ceramic particles into Ti and its alloys has proved to be an efficient way to enhance their mechanical and wear properties. Our purpose in this work was to analyze the corrosion, tribocorrosion, mechanical and morphological effects of combining titanium carbide with titanium metal, to create a unique composite via spark plasma sintering technique (SPS). Composites with different mass percentage (1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of ceramic phase were produced. The samples of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy were also tested, as a reference. These composites were examined for mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in an environment similar to the human body (Ringer’s solution). Open circuit potential (OPC) and anodic polarization measurements were performed. The properties of titanium composites reinforced with micro- and nanocrystalline TiC powders were compared. It was stated that wear properties were significantly improved with increasing amount of TiC in matrix, especially in the case of nanocrystalline reinforcement. In terms of corrosion resistance, the composites showed slightly worse properties compared to pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.
In this study, the corrosion properties of Ti-6Mo-6V-5Cr-3Sn-2.5Zr alloy were investigated as a function of the cold rolling ratio and annealing temperature. The annealing treatment was carried out at temperature of 680°C, 730°C, and 780°C. The highest corrosion potential observed in the specimen with a 10% rolling ratio was 179 mV, which was more positive than that of the non-rolled specimen (–0.214 Vssc). The lowest corrosion current density (1.30×10–8 A/cm2) was observed in the non-rolled specimen which suggested that the integrity of its passive oxide layer was superior to that of the cold-rolled specimens. Time-dependent EIS evaluation revealed that the consistency of the passive oxide layer was highly affected by the subjected rolling ratio over time.
In the present study, Ti6Al4V titanium alloy plates were joined using robotic laser welding method. Pre- and post-weld heat treatments were applied to laser welded joints. After welding stress relieving, solution heat treatment and ageing were also applied to preheated laser welded samples. Effects of heat treatment conditions on microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties of robotic laser welded joints were studied. Aged samples were found to be made of coarsened grains compared to microstructures of non-aged samples. There were increases in ductility and impact toughness of samples applied to ageing increased, while hardness and tensile strength of non-aged samples were higher. The highest value for tensile strength and for impact toughness in welded samples have been identified as 840 MPa and 27 J, respectively. Fractures in tensile test samples and base metal impact test samples took place in the form of ductile fracture, while laser welded impact test samples had fractures in the mode of intergranular fractures with either a quasi-cleavage type or tear ridges. EDS analysis carried out for all heat treatment conditions and welding parameters demonstrated that major element losses were not observed in base metal, HAZ and weld metal.
The paper presents an innovative method of creating the layered castings. The innovation relies on application the 3D printing insert obtaining in SLM (selective laser melting) method. This type of scaffold insert made from pure Ti powder, was placed into mould cavity directly before pouring by grey cast iron. In result of used method was obtained grey cast iron casting with surface layer reinforced by titanium carbides. In range of studies were carried out metallographic researches using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, microhardness measurements and abrasive wear resistance. On the basis of obtaining results was stated that there is a possibility of reinforcing surface layer of the grey cast iron casting by using 3D printing scaffold insert in the method of mould cavity preparation. Moreover there was a local increase in hardness and abrasive wear resistance in spite of the precipitation of titanium carbides in surface layer of grey cast iron. While the usable properties of composite surface layer obtained in result of use of the method presented in the paper, strongly depend of dimensions of scaffold insert, mainly parameters Re and Ri.