Studies to find alternative low environmental-impact materials for acoustic absorbers are still progressing, particularly those originated from natural materials. However, most of the established works are mainly focused on the fibrous-type absorbers. Discussion on the non-fibrous-type absorbers is still lacking and this therefore becomes the objective of this paper. Use of bamboo by utilizing its hollow structure to absorb sound energy is discussed here. The normal incidence absorption coefficient was measured based on the length and diameter of the bamboo, as well as different arrangement of the bamboo structure subjected to the incidence sound, namely, axial, transverse, and crossed-transverse arrangements. The trend of absorption coefficient appears in peaks and dips at equally spacing frequencies. For all arrangements the peak of absorption can reach above 0.8. Introducing an air gap behind the bamboo shifts the peak absorption to lower frequency. Covering the front surface of the absorber improves the sound absorption coefficient for axial arrangement by widening the frequency range of absorption also towards lower frequency range. The transverse arrangement is found to have average absorption coefficient peaks of 0.7 above 1.5 kHz. By arranging the bamboo structure with crossed-transverse arrangement, the suppressed absorption peaks in normal transverse arrangement can be recovered.
Sound absorption coefficient is a commonly used parameter to characterize the acoustic properties of sound absorbing materials. It is defined within the frequency range of 100-5 000 Hz. In the industrial conditions, many appliances radiating acoustic energy of the frequency range of above 5000 Hz are used and at the same time it is known that a noise within the frequency range of 5 000-50 000 Hz can have a harmful effect on people,hence there is a need to define the coefficient in this frequency range. The article presents a proposal for a method of measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of materials in the frequency range from 5 000 Hz to 50 000 Hz. This method is a modification of the reverberation method with the use of interrupted noise.
Considering the environmental pollution caused by waste rubber, some measures should be taken to improve the utilization rate of waste rubber. In this study, the effect of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) particles in the polyurethane (PU) foams on sound absorption behavior is investigated for improving sound environment within vehicles and reducing the environment pollution. EPDM of different contents and hardness are used as fillers for producing foams with different pore morphologies and sound absorption properties. The results show adds EPDM to foam would produce smaller pores, higher density and bigger air-flow resistivity. Simultaneously, there are better sound absorption properties of the PU foam composites in the medium frequency region and the better value can be obtained at the lower frequency with the content of EPDM increasing. The hardness of EPDM also shows better influence on sound absorption properties, especially in the medium frequency region. It means the foam pore morphologies have influence on sound absorption properties.
The cuboidal room acoustics field is modelled with the Fourier method. A combination of uniform, impedance boundary conditions imposed on walls is assumed, and they are expressed by absorption coefficient values. The absorption coefficient, in the full range of its values in the discrete form, is considered. With above assumptions, the formula for a rough estimation of the cuboidal room acoustics is derived. This approximate formula expresses the mean sound pressure level as a function of the absorption coefficient, frequency, and volume of the room separately. It is derived based on the least-squares approximation theory and it is a novelty in the cuboidal room acoustics. Theoretical considerations are illustrated via numerical calculations performed for the 3D acoustic problem. Quantitative results received with the help of the approximate formula may be a point of reference to the numerical calculations.
Efficient ultrasonic noise reduction by using enclosures requires the knowledge of absorbing properties of materials in the frequency range above 4 kHz. However, standardized methods enable determination of absorption coefficients of materials in the frequency range up to 4 kHz. For this reason, it is proposed to carry out measurements of the sound absorption properties of materials in the free field by means of a tone-burst technique in the frequency range from 4 kHz to 40 kHz at angles of incidence varying from 0° to 60°. The absorption coefficient of a material is calculated from the reflection coefficient obtained by reflecting a tone-burst from both a perfectly reflecting panel and a combination of this panel and the sample of the tested material. The tests results show that mineral wool and polyurethane open-cell foam possess very good absorbing properties in this frequency range.
The area of environmental protection concern minimises the impact that technical objects have on the environment. Usually the most effective way of protecting the environment is to influence the source of the problem. For this reason studies are conducted to modify the construction of machines, power machines in particular, so as to minimise their impact on the environment. In the case of environmental protection from noise it is most convenient to carry out measurements in an anechoic chamber. Unfortunately, this is possible only in very limited circumstances. In all other cases measurements are performed using an engineering method or the survey method, both of which are described in the standards and by taking into account the so-called environmental corrections. The obtained results are burdened with greater error than those of measurements in an anechoic chamber. Therefore, it would seem advantageous to develop a method of obtaining similar and reliable results as those in an anechoic chamber, but in a reverberant field. The authors decided to use numerical modelling for this purpose. The main objective of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the numerical model of a laboratory designed for acoustic tests of selected power machines. The geometry of a room comprising an area of analysis is easy to design. The main difficulty in modelling the phenomena occurring in the analysed area can be the lack of knowing the boundary conditions. Therefore, the authors made an attempt to analyse the sensitivity of various acoustic parameters in a room in order to change these boundary conditions depending on the sound absorption coefficient
This paper presents maps of spatial distributions of the short circuit current Isc(x,y) and the open circuit voltage Uoc(x,y) of the investigated low cost solar cells. Visible differences in values of these parameters were explained by differences in the serial and shunt resistances determined for different points of solar cells from measurements of I–V characteristics. The spectral dependence of the photo voltage of solar cell is also shown, discussed and interpreted in the model of amorphous and crystal silicon.