Knowledge of gravitational acceleration in metrology is required for traceable force and pressure calibrations, furthermore the redefinition of the SI base unit of kilogram requires absolute accomplishment of the gravitational acceleration. A direct free-fall gravimeter is developed using pneumatic grippers for test mass handling and a semi-rotary actuator for repositioning, i.e. automated re-launching. The catch and release system is powered by compressed air. This eliminates electric interferences around the test mass. A simplified method of signal capturing and processing is used on the designed gravimeter. A digital frequency trigger is implemented in the post processing algorithms to ensure that the signals are analysed from the identical effective height. The experimental results measured the site gravitational acceleration of 9.786043 ms��2 with a statistical uncertainty of #6;29 ms��2.
Effectiveness of operation of a weapon stabilization system is largely dependent on the choice of a sensor, i.e. an accelerometer. The paper identifies and examines fundamental errors of piezoelectric accelerometers and offers measures for their reduction. Errors of a weapon stabilizer piezoelectric sensor have been calculated. The instrumental measurement error does not exceed 0.1 × 10−5 m/s2. The errors caused by the method of attachment to the base, different noise sources and zero point drift can be mitigated by the design features of piezoelectric sensors used in weapon stabilizers.
This paper reports on a morphometric analysis of land-terminating glaciers on southern and western Spitsbergen in the years 1936–2014. An attempt was made to estimate the deglaciation rate and the scale of its acceleration in the 21st century in the conditions of Arctic amplification. Satellite scenes and topographic map sheets were used for the study and were analyzed by means of remote sensing and GIS methods. The study covered 2000–2014 years and concluded that surface recession accelerated on average by a factor of 2.75 compared to the 1936–2000 period, while linear recession was 2.2 times faster. The greatest increase in the deglaciation rate can be observed in the case of glaciers faced to N and W sectors. The deglaciation process is the most advanced in the central part of the island, where small, compact mountain glaciers predominate. In recent years, a slowdown in the deglaciation processes in these glaciers was observed. The studies demonstrate that the deglaciation rate was mainly influenced by the basin relief determining the glacier geometry. The resultant fractal nature of the ice cover makes it highly vulnerable to the disintegration of complex glacial systems into smaller ones due to glacier thinning and the separation of outlets. The acceleration of the deglaciation rate in turn is modified by the climate factor, especially the impact of warming air masses from the N and W sectors where seas are becoming increasingly ice-free and, consequently, have an increasing heat capacity.
Quality of electric current delivered to the magnets of a particle accelerator is essential for safety and reliability of its operation. Even small discrepancies strongly affect the properties of particle beams. One of the sources of the disturbances is the appearance of induced currents caused by the electromagnetic interactions between the elements of the machine. In this paper the calculations of induced currents in by-pass lines of a SIS100 particle accelerator are presented. In order to find the values of the currents the self-inductances and mutual inductances of the by-pass lines are found. Due to the complex geometry of the line, especially of Ω-shaped dilatations, the numerical approach was employed. The calculations show that the size of induced currents increases with the distance between the cables in an individual bus-bar. The maximum discrepancy of the magnetic field in a dipole magnet is found to be 7.7 μT. The decrease of distance between the cables allows one to obtain a discrepancy of 1.2 μT.
The study of the subdivision driving technology of a stepper motor and two types of typical acceleration and deceleration curves aims at optimizing the open-loop control performance of the stepper motor. The simulation model of a two-phase hybrid stepper motor open-loop control system is set up based on the mathematical model of the stepper motor, in order to let the stepper motor have the smaller stepper angle, two types of typical acceleration and a deceleration curve algorithm are designed for the real- time online calculation based on the subdivision driving technology. It respectively carries out the simulation analysis for their control effects. The simulation results show that the parabolic acceleration and deceleration curves have a larger maximum in-step rotation angle and the faster dynamic response ability in the same control period, and at the same time, the position tracking error of an intermediate process is smaller.