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Number of results: 49
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Abstract

The article is dedicated to the problems of the functioning of people with disabilities in the Polish penitentiary system. It present theoretical considerations, regarding the nature of imprisonment, adaptation problems, types of adaptation strategies, therapeutic system and its limitations, as well as premises for the implementation of own research.
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Abstract

This paper presents the results of a study on the Polish version of the Generic Conspiracist Beliefs Scale (GCBS), which was designed to measure individual differences in conspiracist thinking (Brotherton, French, & Pickering; 2013). The Polish version of the scale had excellent internal consistency as measured by Cronbach alpha: .93. The Polish version also had excellent test-retest stability. To check the validity of the questionnaire, various tools were used to measure the characteristics that can be correlated with conspiracist thinking. As a result, it was found that conspiracist thinking is positively correlated with the external locus of control, the results obtained in the Scale of Belief in Zero-Sum Game and the results of the MMPI-2 Paranoia scale. It was also found that patients with paranoid personality disorder and paranoid schizophrenia had higher results on the adapted scale than healthy subjects. In sum, the Polish version of GCBS had satisfactory psychometric properties, which makes it useful for measuring conspiracist thinking.
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Abstract

A novel method of active noise control using adaptive radiation sound sources is investigated. A finite element model of a modal enclosed sound field is excited harmonically, representing a noise field in the low-frequency range. The control sources are comprised of elementary dipole sources for which the driving signals are adjusted by an optimization method. Two set-up cases of the proposed compound sources are investigated. The coupling of the control sources with the modal sound field is discussed. The simulated performance of the proposed method is compared with that of a system with distributed simple sources and the results show the effectiveness of the sources with adaptive radiation for active noise control in small enclosures.
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Abstract

The hydronym Szywra refers to the small river in the Warta basin flowing in the central part of Greater Poland. Although its name remained unclear for most of the researchers, it was believed to be of Pre-Slavic or Balto-Slavic origin. The paper reveals that these hypotheses were based on the wrong interpretation of the source material, and provides a new etymology for the name Szywra. Based on the critical analysis of all of the reachable records of names referring to the river Szywra, it has been proven that its Polish name is an adaptation of the former German name Schieferbach. Such a process was possible due to the long-term bilingual situation in the region of Greater Poland.
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Abstract

In the paper I show why we should consider Stoicism as the historical source of St. Thomas’s distinction between ‘conscience’ and ‘synderesis’. I claim that the Stoic terms syntērēsis and syneidēsis became, through the ages, the Thomistic synderesis and conscientia. The Stoic syntērēsis meant ‘self-preservation’, and in all animals this ‘first instinct’ refers to the body. The man is the only creature, which, because of its ‘rational nature’, preserves not necessarily its body but rather its soul, i.e. a system of values. Such preservation of someone’s axiological integrity equals ‘salvation’, and thus assimilates Stoicism to Christianity. In the Stoic system, human values follow ‘the nature’ (or ‘the human nature’ in particular), and in Thomism, they follow ‘synderesis’, or the natural inclination toward the good. In both cases we find a natural instinct that transforms itself into a rational structure of conscience. I also argue that, thanks to the moral phenomena of ‘adaptation’ (oikeiōsis) and ‘advancement’ (teleiōsis), the Stoic ethics is not completely egocentric, but incorporates also social duties.
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Abstract

The article deals with the patterns of segmental adaptation of Polish voiceless affricates in initial and fi nal CC (consonant + consonant) clusters by native speakers of English. The data have been collected in an online loanword adaptation experiment in which 30 native speakers of Southern British English reproduced Polish words containing such sequences. The major problem posed by the data is the divergent adaptation of the post-alveolar /͡tʂ/ vs. the pre-palatal /͡tɕ/, with the former substituted mainly with the coronal plosive [t] and the latter realised as the palato-alveolar affricate [͡tʃ]. It is argued that these patterns of nativisation are due to the highlyranked IDENT-IO[dist] constraint, which militates against the modifi cation in the value of the feature [distributed]. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the experimental results provide evidence in favour of the fundamental assumptions underlying the phonological approach to loan assimilation, namely the phonological input view as well as the faithful perception view.
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Abstract

The paper presents the application of the newly developed method of the solution of nonlinear equations to the adaptive modelling and computer simulation. The approach is suitable when the system of equations can be arranged in such a way that it consists of a large number of linear equations and a smaller number of nonlinear equations. This situation occurs in the case of adaptive modelling of mechanical systems using finite elements or finite differences techniques. In this case the classical least square method becomes very effective. The paper presents several examples of the application of the method. A solution to the, so called, “black box” problem is also presented.
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Abstract

In a parallel time-interleaved data sampling system, timing and amplitude mismatches of this structure degrade the performance of the whole ADC system. In this paper, an adaptive blind synthesis calibration algorithm is proposed, which could estimate the timing, gain and offset errors simultaneously, and calibrate automatically. With no need of an extra calibration signal and redesign, it could efficiently and dynamically track the changes of mismatches due to aging or temperature variation. A fractional delay filter is developed to adjust the timing mismatch, which simplifies the design and decreases the cost. Computer simulations are also included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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Abstract

To stabilise the periodic operation of a chemical reactor the oscillation period should be determined precisely in real time. The method discussed in the paper is based on adaptive sampling of the state variable with the use of chaotic mapping to itself. It enables precise determination of the oscillation period in real time and could be used for a proper control system, that can successfully control the process of chemical reaction and maintain the oscillation period at a set level. The method was applied to a tank reactor and tubular reactor with recycle.
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Abstract

In this paper, a new Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP NN) classifier is proposed for classifying sonar targets and non-targets from the acoustic backscattered signals. Besides the capabilities of MLP NNs, it uses Back Propagation (BP) and Gradient Descent (GD) for training; therefore, MLP NNs face with not only impertinent classification accuracy but also getting stuck in local minima as well as lowconvergence speed. To lift defections, this study uses Adaptive Best Mass Gravitational Search Algorithm (ABGSA) to train MLP NN. This algorithm develops marginal disadvantage of the GSA using the bestcollected masses within iterations and expediting exploitation phase. To test the proposed classifier, this algorithm along with the GSA, GD, GA, PSO and compound method (PSOGSA) via three datasets in various dimensions will be assessed. Assessed metrics include convergence speed, fail probability in local minimum and classification accuracy. Finally, as a practical application assumed network classifies sonar dataset. This dataset consists of the backscattered echoes from six different objects: four targets and two non-targets. Results indicate that the new classifier proposes better output in terms of aforementioned criteria than whole proposed benchmarks.
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Abstract

We study an elegant snap system with only one nonlinear term, which is a quadratic nonlinearity. The snap systemdisplays chaotic attractors,which are controlled easily by changing a system parameter. By using analysis, simulations and a real circuit, the dynamics of such a snap system has been investigated. We also investigate backstepping based adaptive control schemes for the new snap system with unknown parameters.
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Abstract

This work describes a new study to achieve a combination of modified function projective synchronization between three different chaotic systems through adaptive control. Using the Lyapunov function theory, the asymptotic stability of the error dynamics is obtained and discussed. Further, we set some appropriate initial conditions for the state variables and assigning specific values to the parameters and obtain the graphical results, which shows the efficiencies of the new method. Finally, we summarized our work with conclusion and references.
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Abstract

The article is an invitation to discuss the way of understanding human development as an actualization of individual’s potential. I present two opposite approaches to this particular problem: human development as choosing preferable potentials and also as striving to actualization of, in some way, every potential, especially these which concern the uniqueness of an individual. In the following parts of the article I locate the problem of human potential in three main discourses regarding: 1) human nature and its origin, 2) the possibility of full experience of individual lifespan 3) the possibility of influence through people on the content and the form of their actualizing potential. To the latter and strictly practical issue I pay most attention. I formulate five thesis regarding this issue. They may, in my opinion, be a starting point to discuss the general problem mentioned above. Therefore, they encourage to think about the mechanism of human development and the future environment of his life.
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Abstract

This work aims to comprehensively describe the current state of the concept of green infrastructure. It is thus meant to fill in a gap in Polish literature as no comprehensive works concerning green infrastructure have been published in our country even though we have witnessed several such works in other places in the world. The book is mostly addressed to urban planners, spatial planners and landscape architects and it focuses on issues related to developing strategies or green nalyzingture network designs. It is difficult to establish when (and by whom) the term “green infrastructure” was actually coined. The performed literature search indicates that various authors attribute its beginnings to different publications. There is, however, much more consensus regarding the origins of the idea of green infrastructure. Among the concepts regarded as the bases for the notion of green infrastructure we can discern two principal ones: the concept of ecological networks and the concept of greenways (in the US). In Poland, such concepts included the Ecological System of Protected Areas (in Polish: Ekologiczny System Obszarów Chronionych) and System of Open Spaces (in Polish: System terenów otwartych). There is some disagreement regarding the origins of green infrastructure in cities. Analysis of defi nitions of green infrastructure seen in both scientific publications as well as guides and formal documents leads to a single conclusion – we should accept the diversity of interpretations and approaches. A similar diversity in approaches can also be found when looking at the presented typologies. By analyzing the rationale behind the typologies, we can discern three major criteria used by the authors: land cover, land use and ecological value, which is usually associated with formal protection of specifi c areas. The principles of green infrastructure development can be divided into planning-related (multi-functionality, connectivity, multi-scale approach, multi-object approach, cost-effective approach) and governance-related (strategic approach, integration, social inclusion, transdisciplinarity, stakeholder inclusion). Green infrastructure provides people with a multitude of more or less measurable benefits. For the last several years they have been identified and quantified using a concept of ecosystem services. These services are always provided in certain confi gurations, which means that it is only possible to obtain the benefits if the services generating those benefi ts are not contradictory to each other. For several years now, the European Commission has been conducting research on the scope, possibilities and methods of implementing the concept of green infrastructure in the member states. However, the EU’s offi cial position on this subject was declared only in 2013 via Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions – Green Infrastructure (GI) — Enhancing Europe’s Natural Capital. In both EU member states and the United States, non-governmental organizations are the main advocates of the concept of green infrastructure. They have been recently joined by governmental and self-government agencies. The case studies of already developed strategies and designs of the concept of green infrastructure presented in this book illustrate a great diversity of approaches. It is particularly noticeable in the way of identifying specific components and principles of planning and implementation of green infrastructure networks. These differences come mainly from the varying scale of development, adopted interpretations of the notion of green infrastructure as well as specifi c natural, social and sometimes economic conditions in particular areas. Based on the knowledge and experience gathered from the analysis of those cases, we can point out the following problems that Polish planners need to face in order to develop and implement green infrastructure for Polish rural communes, cities and regions: • good selection of the formula and defi nition of green infrastructure that is appropriate for the scale, specifi c conditions of the area, needs of the inhabitants and ambitions of the authorities; • good identification of areas with potential for green infrastructure development that is appropriate for the scale and problems of a specific area (city, village, region) • identification of the scope and degree of confl ict between ecosystem services provided by individual components of green infrastructure; • development of a spatial concept that includes the problem of the inherent conflict between the expected benefits (especially regulation and maintenance versus cultural) coming from individual components of green infrastructure; • proposal of appropriate instruments for implementing the concept and resolving the problem of its coexistence with other concepts of shaping the ecological structure of cities, rural communes and regions in Poland. Summing up, the concept of green infrastructure can be viewed as the ultimate synthesis of all former ideas dealing with the development of ecological structure of cities, open landscapes and regions. In most European countries, apart from Great Britain, the concept of green infrastructure is currently in its implementation phase. Therefore, its true – not paper – history is about to begin and it will probably look diff erent in every country. It will be aff ected by various traditions of development planning, the already developed concepts, degree of involvement of the authorities and – probably above all – the will of those that expect quantifiable benefits from green infrastructure.
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Abstract

The aim of the article is to present a Polish example of revitalization activities in the „recovered” areas in the city. The process described concerns the Garrison in Gdańsk Wrzeszcz. These areas were formerly occupied by the army, now for several years they have been carrying out construction works aimed at creating a comprehensive residential and service complex with a wide range of accompanying services. The revitalization of this area makes it possible to incorporate it into strongly urbanized city tissue. The location in the center of one of the main districts of the city, very good transport connections make it an attractive location for residents and entrepreneurs. The article refers to other implementations of this type of actions, stressing that the successful revitalization of the former military barracks in Gdańsk is to a relatively large extent carried out with respect for the existing historical tissue. The presented historical outline of the analyzed area makes it possible to get acquainted with its former character and its infl uence on contemporary design decisions. The methods of forming attractive urban spaces have been indicated.
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Abstract

The Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm and its variants are currently the most frequently used adaptation algorithms; therefore, it is desirable to understand them thoroughly from both theoretical and practical points of view. One of the main aspects studied in the literature is the influence of the step size on stability or convergence of LMS-based algorithms. Different publications provide different stability upper bounds, but a lower bound is always set to zero. However, they are mostly based on statistical analysis. In this paper we show, by means of control theoretic analysis confirmed by simulations, that for the leaky LMS algorithm, a small negative step size is allowed. Moreover, the control theoretic approach alows to minimize the number of assumptions necessary to prove the new condition. Thus, although a positive step size is fully justified for practical applications since it reduces the mean-square error, knowledge about an allowed small negative step size is important from a cognitive point of view.
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Abstract

The paper considers an algorithm for increasing the accuracy of measuring systems operating on moving objects. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter. It aims to provide a high measurement accuracy for the whole range of change of the measured quantity and the interference effects, as well as to eliminate the influence of a number of interference sources, each of which is of secondary importance but their total impact can cause a considerable distortion of the measuring signal. The algorithm is intended for gyro-free measuring systems. It is based on a model of the moving object dynamics. The mathematical model is developed in such a way that it enables to automatically adjust the algorithm parameters depending on the current state of measurement conditions. This makes possible to develop low-cost measuring systems with a high dynamic accuracy. The presented experimental results prove effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of the dynamic accuracy of measuring systems of that type.
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Abstract

The material presents a real problem inherent in the management of computer systems, namely that of finding the appropriate system settings and thus being able to achieve the expected perfor- mance. The material also presents a prototype which aims to adapt the system in such a way as to achieve the objective, defined as the application efficiency. The prototype uses a resource-oriented mechanism that is built into the OS Workload Manager and is focused on a proposed goal-oriented subsystem based on fuzzy logic, managing resources to make the best use of them, and pursuing translation to the use of system resources, including nondeterministic technology-related factors such as duration of allocation and release of the resources, sharing the resources with the uncapped mode, and the errors of performance measurement.
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Abstract

Noise control has gained a lot of attention recently. However, presence of nonlinearities in signal paths for some applications can cause significant difficulties in the operation of control algorithms. In particular, this problem is common in structural noise control, which uses a piezoelectric shunt circuit. Not only vibrating structures may exhibit nonlinear characteristics, but also piezoelectric actuators. In this paper, active device casing is addressed. The objective is to minimize the noise coming out of the casing, by controlling vibration of its walls. The shunt technology is applied. The proposed control algorithm is based on algorithms from a group of soft computing. It is verified by means of simulations using data acquired from a real object.
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Abstract

The significance of the famous Shannon's publication "A mathematical theory of communication" is discussed. The author states that this theory was a breakthrough for the times it was created. The present-day communications is so highly developed, that some old maxims should be up-dated, particularly the definition of the lower bound of signal reception. The author claims that this bound is no longer a constant value, ln(2), as the Shannon's theory states, but depends on many factors such, as the ratio of bandwidth-to-information transmission rate, the class of a receiver (adaptive, cognitive, MIMO1), the kind of reception system (on-line or off-line), and - of course - on the characteristics of noise, including entropy. Then, an absolute limit (Eb/N0)abs = 0 is suggested. An example of an advanced adaptive system approaching this bound is given.
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Abstract

Some materials-related microstructural problems calculated using the phase-field method are presented. It is well known that the phase field method requires mesh resolution of a diffuse interface. This makes the use of mesh adaptivity essential especially for fast evolving interfaces and other transient problems. Complex problems in 3D are also computationally challenging so that parallel computations are considered necessary. In this paper, a parallel adaptive finite element scheme is proposed. The scheme keeps the level of node and edge for 2D and level of node and face for 3D instead of the complete history of refinements to facilitate derefinement. The information is local and exchange of information is minimized and also less memory is used. The parallel adaptive algorithms that run on distributed memory machines are implemented in the numerical simulation of dendritic growth and capillary-driven flows.
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Abstract

The subject of this study is the non-repudiation security service for network communication using TCP/IP stack. Generated evidence, as well as decision-making process of registering a given event, are context-aware. Non-repudiation is equipped with context-awareness by using widely utilized network tools. The aim of this paper is to present timing results for selected tools execution and to complete the evidence generation time. In some applications it is crucial to gather evidence data as fast as possible because of the rapidly changing network environment. For such situations, in case of prolonged execution time, an output from a tool might imprecisely describe the contextual situation from the time of the occurrence of an event.
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Abstract

In order to overcome the shortcomings of the dolphin algorithm, which is prone to falling into local optimum and premature convergence, an improved dolphin swarm algorithm, based on the standard dolphin algorithm, was proposed. As a measure of uncertainty, information entropy was used to measure the search stage in the dolphin swarm algorithm. Adaptive step size parameters and dynamic balance factors were introduced to correlate the search step size with the number of iterations and fitness, and to perform adaptive adjustment of the algorithm. Simulation experiments show that, comparing with the basic algorithm and other algorithms, the improved dolphin swarm algorithm is feasible and effective.
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