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Abstract

In the era of an aging society, age friendly cities planning is gaining in importance. Due to the low mobility of these people, it is important to plan their immediate living environment, ensuring access to facilities and areas that meet the basic needs of this special group of urban space users. The paper analyzes the potential accessibility of older people to green areas, sports and recreation facilities, service and commercial facilities, culture and health care facilities, and public transport stops, in order to delimit problem areas characterized by functional and spatial deficits in this area. In addition, the level and quality of accessibility of older people to the abovementioned elements of development.
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Abstract

A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of crumb rubber on the strength and mechanical behaviour of Rubberized cement soil (RCS). In the present investigation, 26 groups of soil samples were prepared at five different percentages of crumb rubber content, four different percentages of cement content and two different finenesses of crumb rubber particle. Compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 90 days. The test results indicated that the inclusion of crumb rubber within cement soil leads to a decrease in the compressive strength and stiffness and improves the cement soil’s brittle behaviour to a more ductile one. A reduction of up to 31% in the compressive strength happened in the 20% crumb content group. The compressive strength increases with the increase in the cement content. And the enlargement of cement content is more efficient at low cement content.
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Abstract

The authoress wishes to discuss the idea of engaging senior citizens into the maintenance and care of historical park and garden complexes. The article illustrates the possible mutual benefits of the cooperation between the caretakers of these complexes and organized groups of senior citizens, who whose participation would be based on a form of voluntary help, through a foundation, or based on monetary compensation. Such a cooperation could lead to an improvement of the condition of historical gardens, in addition to providing beneficial effects to the physical and mental he alth of older people.
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Abstract

Searching and exploring the motives of continuing in the profession may be an important objective of efforts undertaken by researchers and people directly responsible for the organization and quality of work. Identifying the needs and expectations of the employee is an important element of her/his adaptation in the work environment. Because the age of life is one of the factors affecting the perception of the world and work, in this article motives of continuing professional activity in group of special educators are described in the age of life context.
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Abstract

Reference intervals (RIs) are one of the essential elements in the procedure of disease diagnosis. This is especially true for feline species in which RI is less available than in canine species. RIs are affected by biological, geographical and instrumental factors, yet published RIs with incomplete background are popularly used. Inappropriate interpretations of RIs may affect classification of disease and subsequent treatment. In this study, we demonstrated the step-by-step establishment of feline RIs following the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) reference interval guideline. A total of 51 parameters were examined, including 20 hematology and 31 biochemistry parameters, and the results were compared to one local RI and two foreign RIs. Overall, about 29% (10/35) of tested parameters were different form local RIs and 60% (30/50) were different from the two foreign RIs, highlighting geographical variations. A higher upper reference limit (URL) in red blood cell count (RBC), hematocrit (Hct), Hemoglobin (Hgb), albumin, creatinine and lower URL in potassium and white blood cell count (WBC) were identified, which may impact the interpretation. In addition, statistical analysis of age and gender were factored separately and indicated that 10 parameters were significantly higher in the adult group. For the impact of gender, percentage of basophil and total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were lower in female and male cats, respectively. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that it is desirable to establish in-house RIs or RIs of local sources. An age specific RI for the geriatric feline population is advisable for better diagnosis and monitoring the disease.
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Abstract

Observations indicate a constantly decreasing mean age of shoal. In consecutive years of investigations a loss of older individuals was recorded. At present the catches consist of 3—14 years old fishes; 9—10 years old dominate. During the austral summer the fish most probably do not migrate. The shoal of the shelf maintains approximately constant frequency and dominance in classes of length.
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Abstract

The stance of mysticism on language is located in the field of tensions between the fundamental inability to express the essence of God through the medium of language and the imperative, or the need, to talk about it. In the space betwixt and between, there extends mystic silence as a paradoxical, but effective way of communication and insight. Depending on individual mystics, whose selection from the Middle Ages to the Baroque is presented in the text, silence receives also various additional aspects.
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: Forgeries of coins can either be contemporary or modern. Already in the Middle Ages, it was well known that bracteates were considerably more difficult to counterfeit than two-faced coins. The main reason is that bracteates are struck with a more complicated technology originating from goldsmithing. Therefore, most bracteate forgeries have been produced since the eighteenth century. Compared to original bracteates, modern bracteate forgeries often have the following characteristics: 1) an incorrect weight; 2) a lower relief; 3) sharper contours on the reverse; 4) an artistically clumsy design; 5) evidence of being struck with the same die if there are several specimens; and/or 6) empty fields in the background.
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Abstract

Humidity is probably the most important abiotic factor influencing life cycles, distribution, survival, and population dynamics of stored product pests. Although most of these pests can complete their life cycles in any given relative humidity, their prolonged development time, as well as decreased emergence rate and fecundity, have been well documented in several previous studies. In the present study, we evaluated the changes in energetic substances (lipids, soluble carbohydrates, glycogen, and proteins) accumulated in different life stages of larvae and adults of Tribolium castaneum in response to different relative humidity levels (5, 12, 22, 30, 45, and 65%). The results showed that young larvae were more susceptible to low relative humidity levels and desiccation stress. Larvae tended to accumulate higher proportions of lipids during earlier stages while their energy content shifted towards proteins with an increase in their age. Adult beetles experienced a significant decrease in their protein content immediately after they initiated reproduction. The importance of these fluctuations in the biology of the red flour beetles was discussed in detail.
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Abstract

The scope of the paper refers to long- and medium-run trends of labour supply in Poland. The main purpose is to determine current trends in the labour supply and its projections till the year 2050. In the theoretical part of the paper determinants of labour supply are considered. The projections are based on the population forecasts till 2050 made by the Central Statistical Office of Poland (CSO) and by the authors’ own simulations. Several variants of upper limit of working age and activity rates are taken into account. The population forecasts by the CSO indicate it will occur big decrease of working age population till 2050. The biggest decrease will refer to the group of working age 18–59/64 years and the lowest decrease in the age group 18–66 years. The analysis shows that the declines in labour supply in the years 2020–2050 will occur in all variants of working age population, the biggest decline in the variant assuming the age group 18–59/64 and the smallest decline – in the group 15–74 years. Retirement age is of big importance for the size of labour supply. This is why it is recommended to encourage older people to prolong their economic activity. It is also necessary to increase activity rates in the working age population.
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Abstract

Twelve glaciers, representing various types, were investigated between 2000 and 2005, in a region adjacent to the northern reaches of Billefjorden, central Spitsbergen ( Svalbard ). On the basis of measurements taken using reference points, DGPS and GPS systems, analyses of aerial photographs and satellite images, geomorphological indicators and archival data their rates of deglaciation following the “Little Ice Age” (LIA) maximum were calculated variously on centennial, decadal and annual time scales. As most Svalbard glaciers have debris-covered snouts, a clean ice margin was measured in the absence of debris-free ice front. The retreat rates for both types of ice fronts were very similar. All studied glaciers have been retreating since the termination of the Little Ice Age at the end of 19th century. The fastest retreat rate was observed in the case of the Nordenskiöldbreen tidewater glacier (mean average linear retreat rate 35 m a-1). For land-terminating glaciers the rates were in range of 5 to 15 m a-1. Presumably owing to climate warming, most of the glacier retreat rates have increased several fold in recent decades. The secondary factors influencing the retreat rates have been identified as: water depth at the grounding line in the case of tidewater glaciers, surging history, altitude, shape and aspect of glacier margin, and bedrock relief. The retreat rates are similar to glaciers from other parts of Spitsbergen . Analyses of available data on glacier retreat rates in Svalbard have allowed us to distinguish four major types: very dynamic, surging tidewater glaciers with post-LIA retreat rates of between 100 and 220 m a-1, other tidewater glaciers receding of a rate of 15 to 70 m a-1, land terminating valley polythermal glaciers with an average retreat of 10 to 20 m a-1 and small, usually cold, glaciers with the retreat rates below 10 m a-1.
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Abstract

The authors draw on their experience and past mountain landscape studies to describe an emerging collaborative research project designed to conduct advanced field studies and generate (and test) archaeological landscape models of past hunter-gatherer populations as well as pastoralist and early farming community seasonal transhumance migrations between lowland river valleys of Poland’s Podhale Basin and high altitude forests and meadows its adjacent High Tatra Mountains.
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Abstract

In Tanaidacea morphological identification of male individuals to the species level is complicated by two factors: the presence of multiple male stages/instars confuse the assessment of sexual stage while strong sexual dimorphism within several families obscures the morphological affinities of undescribed males to described females. Males of Paratanaoidea are often morphologically quite different from females and have not been discovered for most genera so far, which has led to the assumption that some tanaidaceans might have parthenogenetic reproduction or simply have undeveloped secondary sex traits. As a part of the IceAGE project (Icelandic marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology), with the support of molecular methods, the first evidence for the existence of highly dimorphic (swimming) males in four families of the superfamily Paratanaoidea (Agathotanaidae, Cryptocopidae, Akanthophoreidae, and Typhlotanaidae) is presented. This study suggests that these males might be the next instars after juvenile or preparatory males, which are morphologically similar to females. It has been assumed that “juvenile” males with a restricted ability for swimming ( e.g. , undeveloped pleopods) have matured testes, are capable of reproduction, and mate with females nearby, while swimming males can mate with distant females. Our explanation of the dimorphism in Tanaidomorpha lies in the fact that males of some species ( e.g. , Nototanais ) retain the same lifestyle or niche as the females, so secondary traits improve their ability to guard females and successfully mate. Males of other species that have moved into a regime (niche) different than that of the female have acquired complex morphological changes ( e.g. , Typhlotanais ).
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Abstract

Deep−sea benthic Ostracoda (Crustacea) in Icelandic waters are poorly known. Here we report deep−sea ostracode assemblages from the multiple core (MUC) and the epibenthic sledge (EBS) samples collected from Icelandic waters by the first cruise of the IceAGE (Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology) project. Samples from shelf − −edge and lower−bathyal working areas are examined. The results show (1) distinct MUC and EBS faunas due to the large difference in mesh size of MUC and EBS; and (2) distinct shelf−edge and lower−bathyal ostracode faunas. Such remarkable faunal turnover from shelf to bathyal depths is similar to the faunal turnovers reported from depth transects in the adjacent regions of the western North Atlantic Ocean, the Greenland Sea, and the North Sea, but, at the same time, there are certain differences in the faunal composition between the Icelandic waters and these adjacent regions. In addition, we illustrate many Icelandic deep−sea ostracode species with high−resolution scanning electron microscopy and composite all−in−focus stereomicroscopic images for the first time. These results provide important basic information on deep−sea ostracode research and biogeography of this important region connecting North Atlantic proper and Nordic Seas.
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Abstract

The focus of the article is the Vatin culture settlement at the site of Vinča-Belo Brdo in Northern Serbia. The general idea is that this settlement, whose existence was relatively short in time, benefited from being established by the Danube — a great connective factor in the world of the Middle Bronze Age. It shares many characteristics with the contemporary settlements in the southernmost part of the Carpathian basin, starting from the position in the vicinity of the Danube, at the places which had already been settled in prehistory, prior to the Middle Bronze Age. Not only do they have pottery style in common, but the wider repertoire of finds illustrating the material culture. What’s more, comparison of the material remains from Vinča with the neighbouring sites from the left Danube bank enlightens how the Vatin culture was integrated into a wider space of the Bronze Age cultures of the Carpathian basin, influencing the Balkans hinterland, too.
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Abstract

Collections of munnopsid isopods of the BIOICE (Benthic Invertebrates of Icelandic Waters; 1991–2004) and the IceAGE1 (Icelandic Marine Animals: Genetics and Ecology; since 2011) expeditions included ten species of the genus Eurycope G.O. Sars, 1864, thereof are two species new to science. Thus, the descriptions of the two new species are presented herein. Eurycope elianae sp. n. is distinguished from the other species of the genus mainly by two long, slightly robust, simple setae on the tip of the rostrum in combination with the size and shape of the rostrum itself. E elianae sp. n. shares the presence of two long, slightly robust, simple seta on the tip of the rostrum with E. tumidicarpus . The shape of the rostrum itself is more similar to E. inermis and species of the E. complanata complex. E. aculeata sp. n. is characterized by possessing dorsomedial acute projections on pereonites 5–7, which is unusual for the genus. E. aculeata sp. n. is most similar to E. cornuta . Both new species are, so far, known only from localities south of the Greenland−Scotland Ridge.
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Abstract

This paper presents a new approach to study the palaeoecological and archaeological benefits of the previously investigated Szeged-Öthalom area. The aim was to combine the archaeological results with the palaeoecological ones by a new integral view. Age-depth models of 14C dated charcoal were calculated via Bayesian method to reconstruct the sediment accumulation rates in the investigated loess- palaeosol sequences. Moreover, the age of a Mammoth bone found in 1935 at the nearby Palaeolithic site was correlated with the calculated accumulation rates. Through our new results, the age of the Palaeolithic site could be correlated to the late LGM dust-accumulation-peak period. Even if this period is considered as cold and dry, the palaeoecological settings indicated dense forest cover and cool climate in the investigated area. This means that the palaeoenvironment may have encouraged the diffusion of Gravettian hunters in this area, founding campsites like Öthalom in the southern part of the Carpathian Basin.
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Abstract

We measured the bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) isoenzyme activity in 67 plasma samples from 14 newborn Holstein calves using both a conventional method (featuring heat inactivation) and a commercial agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) kit; the relevant isoenzymes were termed bone-specific ALP (BAP) and ALP isoenzyme 3 (ALP3). We explored whether the AGE kit afforded reliable data when used to analyze samples from Holstein calves. The blood was collected from the jugular vein of each calf immediately prior to the first colostrum feeding (pre-feeding), 20 and 40 h after pre-feeding, and on days 4 and 7; whereas three samples (from three calves) were not obtained. The total plasma ALP activity varied widely, exceeding the ranges of reference values. On electrophoresis, 52 of 67 plasma samples (77.6 %) clearly contained both ALP isoenzyme 2 and ALP3, as did control human serum. The total ALP activity of the 52 samples ranged from 166–1989 U/L (median: 1013 U/L), whereas the values for the other 15 samples (22.4%) exhibiting abnormal isoenzyme fractionation ranged from 1014–5118 U/L (median: 1780 U/L). In the 52 plasma samples exhibiting clearly separated isoenzymes, ALP3 and BAP activities were strongly positively correlated as revealed by Deming regression (y = 0.93x + 22.6, p<0.0001) and Bland-Altman analysis (ALP3/BAP activities limit of agreement: −5.1%). Thus, the AGE kit yields useful information on newborn calves, and can replace the conventional method when the total plasma ALP activity is less than approximately 1000 U/L.
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Abstract

The article describes the influence of anomalous values and local variability on the structure of variability and the estimation of deposit parameters. The research was carried out using statistical and geostatistical methods based on the Pb accumulation index in the shale series in part of the Cu-Ag ore deposit, LGCD (Lubin-Głogów Copper District). The authors recommend the use of a geostatistical tool, the so-called semivariogram cloud to determine the anomalous values. Anomalous values determined by the geostatistical method and removed from the dataset have resulted in a significant reduction of the relative variability of data, which is still very large in the case of the analyzed parameter or parameters with similar statistical features such as extreme variability and strongly asymmetric distribution. Calculations of the resources of this element can be treated only as estimates and formally classified to category D. The hypothetical assumption of the absence of sampling errors, resulting in a decrease in the magnitude of local variation, leads to a certain reduction of the median error of resource estimates. However, they are still high (> 35%). This is due to the large natural variability of the accumulation index of Pb on the local observation scale. The current method for collecting samples from mine workings of the Cu-Ag deposits in the Lubin-Głogów Copper District (LGCD), aimed at the proper assessment of copper resources, the Cu content, and at estimating the quality of copper output, makes it impossible to achieve an accuracy of estimates of Pb resources similar to that obtained for the main metal. Theoretically, this effect can be achieved by a strong concentration of the sample collection points and thanks to a multiple increase in the samples weight; this, however, is unrealistic for both economic and organizational reasons. It is therefore to be expected that the assessment of Pb resources and other accompanying elements of similar statistical features (e.g. As), located in parts of the deposit where mining activities are to be carried out, will be subject to significant errors.
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Abstract

The process of cognitive aging in global sense can be characterised by changes of the fluid and crystallised intelligence. In the context of this explanation the basic question is which cognitive functions and regulatory mechanisms play the basic role of the determinants for cognitive aging. Probable, mechanism of associative memory play a central role in top-down direction of cognitive processing. This type of memory connect the resources/networks of long term memory with the current processing in working memory. Another set of mechanisms concerns with bottom-up direction based on procedural memory, which is fundamental for the functioning of the mind as whole (Tulving theory,1985). Unfortunately, our knowledge about associative memory and its relations to working and procedural memory is incomplete and unclear. The importance of associative memory are partly, empirically supported by classic research on decreasing the cognitive components of intelligence aging, since the fluid and crystallized intelligence where discovered (Horn, Cattell, 1967). Changes of the mind functioning and its cognitive growth/aging can be characterised as a complex chain from primary, biologically determined mind, through Piagetian and Vygotsky’s type of mind to relatively balanced mind.
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Abstract

An overview of the bibliography regarding the connection of knowledge about precious metal alloys and aspects of the use of computer aided technologies to the optimization of the jewelry casting processes is presented. An analysis of the usability of selected CAx systems was made: 1) for spatial design, called Rhinoceros 6 and 2) CAE system: NovaFlow & Solid (NF&S). The authors describe own research including data acquisition and evaluation of temperature variations during solidification of the selected Au-Ag-Cu alloy, with the identification of the phase transformations of this alloy. The intensity of heat exchange was changed (cooling of specimens under ambient temperature conditions – "normal" intensity and with the furnace – very slow cooling). The problem of completing the simulation database was pointed out and analyzed. Examples of simulations of casting selected jewelry (ring and signet) were given and compared with the result of the experiment realized in real conditions. It was confirmed that the optimization by combining experimental and simulation studies allows for the acquisition of new knowledge, and also facilitates the creation of new artistic designs of jewelry as well as performing the feasibility check, and then optimizing the chosen technology.
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Abstract

ABSTRACT: The work is devoted to Polish pennies from the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th century with the image of a bishop with a long cross staff and a knight fighting a lion which occurred in the Głogów II hoard in a significant number. So far the pennies have been classified as the issues of the Silesian duke, Boleslaus I the Tall. The author demonstrates that the coins (Str. 46) present the Archbishop of Gniezno, Henryk Kietlicz (1199–1219) and may have been struck from the spring of 1207 till the end of 1211, probably in the mint of the Silesian duke, Henry the Bearded, in Głogów. SUMMARY: Among the two most numerous denar types in the Głogów hoard (1987) there was a denar with a depiction of a bishop with a long cross staff on the obverse and a knight fighting a lion on the reverse (Stronczyński type 46, MA-H in Głogów, at least 5015 specimens. Figs. 1 a, b). This type of denar, previously known only from two nineteenthcentury hoards and several specimens, constitutes about one-fourth of the entire Głogów (1987) hoard. Suchodolski ascribed it to Boleslaw the Tall, duke of Silesia, ruling in the years 1173 to 1185/1190. According to Suchodolski’s interpretation, this type refers to the heritage of the Silesian dukes’ father and the mint of Wrocław, while the letters SA and the figure on the coin should be associated with St Adalbert. I will try to show that this type of coins presents the Archbishop of Gniezno, Henry Kietlicz (1199–1219) and the denars may have been minted from the spring of 1207 to the end of 1211, probably in Duke Henry I the Bearded of Silesia’s mint in Głogów (if it existed at that time), Legnica or Wrocław. The church and political activity of Archbishop Henry Kietlicz, his reforming and political initiatives as the leader of the younger dukes faction in the first decade of the 13th century were aimed at winning the independence of the Polish Church from secular power and even securing its domination. In 1206, a serious conflict broke out between the political party of Vladislas the Spindleshank and the coalition of Leszek the White, Vladislas Odonic and Archbishop Henry Kietlicz. The archbishop’s aim was to increase the importance of the Church in the state and among secular powers. He wanted to transfer the right to elect bishops to cathedral chapters, subordinate Church officials solely to diocesan authorities and guarantee the Church the right to inherit after deceased clergymen. He was also interested in making the ecclesiastical judiciary independent of state authority. In return, the archbishop promised to acknowledge Leszek as the ruler of Cracow after the latter had committed a coup d’état. However, the aims of the ecclesiastical reform clashed with the traditional ius ducale system, executed by the faction of Vladislas Spindleshanks. Vladislas Spindleshanks, being at the time the duke of Greater Poland, entered Gniezno, the then archbishop’s see, seized the cathedral treasury and confiscated the land estates of the archbishop and his supporters, whom he later locked up in the cathedral, turning it into a prison. By doing so, he has bereft the bishop of his funds and prevented him from taking any further actions. Kietlicz, who was effectively banished from Gniezno, headed to Silesia to get financial support from Duke Henry the Bearded, and later went to Rome, as the head of the “juniors” party delegation. Between 4 and 13 January 1207, the papal chancery issued 27 documents concerning Poland. This proves the great engagement of Pope Innocent III in Polish matters and particularly in the ecclesiastical reforms implemented by Archbishop Kietlicz. The Pope granted the Archbishop decisive support, both in the church-political dispute with Vladislas Spindleshanks and in the conducted reform. This helped to consolidate the archbishop’s faction. Some of the issued documents concerned financial matters, such as the collection of Peter’s Pence and the tithe, which were of interest not so much to Kietlicz but to the Holy See. In the bulla dated 5 January and addressed to the Polish dukes, the Pope indicated the fraud that the addressees of the document had committed. This is the very document that contains the words known so well to Polish numismatists: moneta per annum apud vos tertio renovetur, referring to the fact that the tributes paid to the Pope at the end of the year were paid with a coin that had undergone three recoinages, thus of lower value. From that point, instead of the duke it was the Archbishop of Gniezno who was given the responsibility to oversee the quality of the inflows of fees for the Holy See, as well as the tithe in Poland. In another bulla, the Pope appealed to the Polish bishops and clergy, urging them to give the Archbishop the greatest possible help and financial support. Kietlicz, who had been expelled and deprived of any church-related income, was forced to cover all his expenses from his hereditary assets and to borrow money. His debts must have been high, since the Pope, in a separate document, granted their repayment. They had been incurred not only to cover the costs of the mission to Rome but mainly to finance the military efforts of Vladislas Odonic. It is believed that the loan was given by Henry the Bearded, against the deposit of Kietlicz’s family estate in Silesia. A papal document from the 12 January 1207 was of special importance for Archbishop Henry Kietlicz. It was addressed directly to him and granted him the right to use the processional cross staff (crux gestatoria). This honour, usually given to the papal legates81, raised the authority and prestige as well as was considered a clear sign of the Pope’s support for the reforms. Such a figure of a bishop holding a processional cross is depicted on the obverse of the coins from the Głogów treasury (Fig. 1 a, b). None of the Polish priests of this age, other than the Archbishop of Gniezno, Henry Kietlicz, could and had the right to be presented this way. No later than in the summer of 1207, Kietlicz in collaboration with Henry the Bearded, supported his candidate Lawrence in the election for the position of Bishop of Wrocław. He stayed in Głogów, from where he could effectively oversee Vladislas Odonic’s actions in his fight against Spindleshank as well as the church-related matters. He possibly received the permit from Henry the Bearded to produce denars from the silver collected by his subordinate clergy, which were partially directed to Henry’s treasury to repay the debt. The production of these coins could have taken place in the mint in Głogów or Legnica, even though Wroclaw cannot be excluded as a possibility. The production started in the middle of 1207 and lasted until 1211 — that is until the final resolution of the conflict was eventually achieved during the assembly in Borzykowa and the arrival of the Pope’s legates who came to solve the issue. The presented denars with the bishop and the processional cross are the realization of this intention. The letters on the coin, accompanying the figure, reading S[anctvs] A[dalbertvs] mean that the Archbishop of Gniezno, although in exile, does not cease to be the shepherd of the whole Polish metropolis under the patronage of St Adalbert the Martyr. Fig. 8 depicts Kietlicz’s coins compared to other double-sided coins, minted at that time by Mieszko Tanglefoot and Henry the Bearded, pointing to their slightly higher value. Kietlicz had to ensure that the coin he introduced to the money market was of good quality and value, so that it could be accepted without reservation. The Pope’s bulla from 1210 as well as the claim of Henry the Bearded resulting from his rights of primogeniture in the Silesian line reignited political unrest. The agreement was reached at the assembly in Borzykowa, at which Henry the Bearded renounced his rights to the Cracow throne in favor of the aged Duke of Racibórz-Opole, Mieszko Tanglefood, who died the following year. Archbishop Kietlicz returned to the Gniezno cathedral only after Leszek the White took over the Kraków throne after Mieszko’s death and after the papal judges arrived in mid-1211 to resolve the conflict that had been going on for five years. I am concluding that minting of coins for Kietlicz in the Silesian mint lasted at least until then. * Strong arguments supporting the hypothesis that it is Archbishop Kietlicz who is depicted on the presented denars result from the discovery of his tomb in Tum near Łęczyca during archaeological research conducted there. At the remains of the clergyman who was buried there, a silver crucifix with a figure of Christ attached and a spike to be placed on a spar (Fig. 3) was found. Such a cross was used only by eminent priests, who received the right of the processional cross from the Pope as a reward for exceptional merits or by legates sent by the Pope to settle local conflicts. As mentioned, such a right was granted by Innocent III to Archbishop Henry Kietlicz in 1207, and only he could be buried in this tomb. A similar right, given to the Archbishops of Gniezno, was granted only at the Council in Constance debating in 1414–1418, together with the title of the Primate of Poland to Archbishop Nicholas Trąba.
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Abstract

Starting in the early years of education, math anxiety is negatively related to mathematic outcomes, therefore there is a need for its adequate measurement in young children. This study presents the psychometric properties of the modified Abbreviated Math Anxiety Scale for Elementary Children (mAMAS-E) for first- to third-grade children based on mAMAS. The validity of mAMAS-E was determined by a series of tests. The analysis confirmed its two-factor structure (Testing and Learning), positive relationships between mAMAS-E and math, general, and test anxiety, and a negative relationship with mathematical achievement. Children with a high level of math self-esteem and math self-confidence (but not Polish language self-esteem and self-confidence) have lower math anxiety in comparison to those with a moderate level. The results also indicate that girls have a higher level of math anxiety than boys. The validity and internal consistency of mAMAS-E are satisfactory; therefore, mAMAS-E may be a recommendable questionnaire for measuring math anxiety in young children.
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