A simulation-based optimization approach to design of phase excitation tapers for linear phased antenna arrays is presented. The design optimization process is accelerated by means of Surrogate-Based Optimization (SBO); it uses a coarse-mesh surrogate of the array element for adjusting the array’s active reflection coefficient responses and a fast surrogate of the antenna array radiation pattern. The primary optimization objective is to minimize side-lobes in the principal plane of the radiation pattern while scanning the main beam. The optimization outcome is a set of element phase excitation tapers versus the scan angle. The design objectives are evaluated at the high fidelity level of description using simulations of the discrete electromagnetic model of the entire array so that the effects of element coupling and other possible interaction within the array structure are accounted for. At the same time, the optimization process is fast due to SBO. Performance and numerical cost of the approach are demonstrated by optimizing a 16-element linear array of microstrip antennas. Experimental verification has been carried out for a manufactured prototype of the optimized array. It demonstrates good agreement between the radiation patterns obtained from simulations and from physical measurements (the latter constructed through superposition of the measured element patterns).
Design closure, i.e., adjustment of geometry parameters to boost the performance, is a challenging stage of antenna design process. Given complexity of contemporary structures, reliable parameter tuning requires numerical optimization and can be executed using local algorithms. Yet, EM-driven optimization is a computationally expensive endeavour and reducing its cost is highly desirable. In this paper, a modification of the trust-region gradient search algorithm is proposed for accelerated optimization of antenna structures. The algorithm is based on sparse updates of antenna sensitivities involving various methods that include the Broyden formula used for selected parameters, as well as dimensionality- and convergence-dependent acceptance thresholds which enable additional speedup, and make the procedure easy to tune for various numbers of antenna parameters. Comprehensive verification executed for a set of benchmark antennas delivers consistent results and considerable cost reduction of up to 60 percent with respect to the reference algorithm. Experimental validation is also provided.
This research presents a new technique which includes the principle of a Bezier curve and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) together, in order to design the planar dipole antenna for the two different targets. This technique can improve the characteristics of the antennas by modifying copper textures on the antennas with a Bezier curve. However, the time to process an algorithm will be increased due to the expansion of the solution space in optimization process. So as to solve this problem, the suitable initial parameters need to be set. Therefore this research initialized parameters with reference antenna parameters (a reference antenna operates on 2.4 GHz for IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN standards) which resulted in the proposed designs, rapidly converted into the goals. The goal of the first design is to reduce the size of the antenna. As a result, the first antenna is reduced in the substrate size from areas of 5850 mm2 to 2987 mm2(48.93% approximately) and can also operates at 2.4 GHz (2.37 GHz to 2.51 GHz). The antenna with dual band application is presented in the second design. The second antenna is operated at 2.4 GHz (2.40 GHz to 2.49 GHz) and 5 GHz (5.10 GHz to 5.45 GHz) for IEEE 802.11 a/b/g/n WLAN standards.
Compact radiators with circular polarization are important components of modern mobile communication systems. Their design is a challenging process which requires maintaining simultaneous control over several performance figures but also the structure size. In this work, a novel design framework for multi-stage constrained miniaturization of antennas with circular polarization is presented. The method involves se- quential optimization of the radiator in respect of selected performance figures and, eventually, the size. Optimizations are performed with iteratively increased number of design constraints. Numerical efficiency of the method is ensured using a fast local-search algorithm embedded in a trust-region framework. The proposed design framework is demonstrated using a compact planar radiator with circular polarization. The optimized antenna is characterized by a small size of 271 mm2 with 37% and 47% bandwidths in respect of 10 dB return loss and 3 dB axial ratio, respectively. The structure is benchmarked against the state-of-the-art circular polarization antennas. Numerical results are confirmed by measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.
This work examines the reduced-cost design optimization of dual- and multi-band antennas. The primary challenge is independent yet simultaneous control of the antenna responses at two or more frequency bands. In order to handle this task, a feature-based optimization approach is adopted where the design objectives are formulated on the basis of the coordinates of so-called characteristic points (or response features) of the antenna response. Due to only slightly nonlinear dependence of the feature points on antenna geometry parameters, optimization can be attained at a low computational cost. Our approach is demonstrated using two antenna structures with the optimum designs obtained in just a few dozen of EM simulations of the respective structure.
Re-design of a given antenna structure for various substrates is a practically important issue yet non trivial, particularly for wideband and ultra-wideband antennas. In this work, a technique for expedited redesign of ultra-wideband antennas for various substrates is presented. The proposed approach is based on inverse surrogate modeling with the scaling model constructed for several reference designs that are optimized for selected values of the substrate permittivity. The surrogate is set up at the level of coarse-discretization EM simulation model of the antenna and, subsequently, corrected to provide prediction at the high-fidelity EM model level. The dimensions of the antenna scaled to any substrate permittivity within the region of validity of the surrogate are obtained instantly, without any additional EM simulation necessary. The proposed approach is demonstrated using an ultra-wideband monopole with the permittivity scaling range from 2.2 to 4.5. Numerical validation is supported by physical measurements of the fabricated prototypes of the re-designed antennas.