Anthracite coal matter fills irregular voids in dolostones of the Upper Proterozoic Höferpynten Formation in the Hornsund area, south Spitsbergen. The coals are of organic origin, as indicated by a variety of coal-petrographic studies, and by association with algal structures. They probably derived from bitumina accumulated in voids of dolostone at an early diagenelic stage. The degree of coalification (graphitization) is high but diversified, suggesting several coalification stages, probably related t o successive metamorphic events. The oldest changes may correspond to initial stage of t h e greenschist-amphibolite phase of regional metamorphism, with temperatures of over 500°C and pressure of over 20,000 MPa . Multiphase graphite crystallites which occur in t h e coal are mainly fibrous. There are also crystallites which precipitated from gaseous phase, and pyrolitic graphite; they may have originated due to action of mesothermal solutions which had produced ore-bearing veins.
As part of the presented work, tests were carried out to check the possibility of replacing of conventional reducers used in the lead pyrometallurgical processes by cheaper, but equally effective substitutes. For research of lead oxide reduction, the following fine-grained carbonaceous materials were used, ie anthracite dust and coal flotation concentrate, as well as traditional used coke breeze for comparison. The obtained test results indicate a similar ability to reduce the lead oxide of all studied carbonaceous materials.