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Abstract

Formation of modern landscapes of Zaporizhzhya region occurred in the Holocene period. During the Holocene wet phase changing climate fairly arid, warm - rather cold, but the average climatic indicators were close to modern. These conditions contributed to the formation of steppe zonal type of landscape. However, due to prolonged exposure to diverse steppe landscapes economic impacts associated with mismanagement of their natural potential and increasing human pressure on the natural environment has been transformed natural landscapes and change their properties. The result of this action was that the area landscapes drastically reduced. Zaporizhzhya region was the most economically mastered in all regions of Ukraine. To further study the issues to optimize environmental management of the region, the article reproduced a modern structure of landscapes area. The area characterized Zaporizhzhya region lowland class and type steppe landscapes. Three subtypes of landscapes: the north, middle and dry steppe. Each subtype is divided into land. Within North steppe subtype isolated Dniester-Dnieper and the Left-Bank Dnepr-Azov province. Medium steppe subtype is represented by the Black Sea margin, and dry steppe - Black sea-Azov. The most popular items on the optimization of environmental management are landscaped areas and areas of morphological units within them. That level reflects the nature of the landscape area inside the area landscape differentiation. Within the Zaporizhzhya region allocated 7 landscaped areas: highland Azov, highland-Dnieper south slope, Kinsko-Yalinska low-lying, low-lying Azov, the Dnieper-Molochansk low-lying, Western Azov-slope highland and lowland Prisivasko-Priazov.
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Abstract

Sapropel deposits are widely distributed around the globe. In the Americas area they are adjacent to the Great Lakes region, in Europe sapropel deposits can be spotted in the territory of Scandinavia, France, Switzerland, Germany, Poland, Belarus, Russia and in the northern regions of Ukraine. Use of sapropel as a fertilizer can enhance high and stable yields of crops. However, despite the proven effectiveness of long-term practical researches in this area, nowadays sapropel is almost not used. One of the reasons - lack of developed processing methods of extraction and processing, including dehydration. Material properties as an object of interaction with the working bodies, change of their settings in the processing are crucial in the choice of technologies, development, bringing up to the necessary parameters and subsequent use. Sapropel high humidity (95-98%) is one of the main factor that determines the quality of its properties after the interaction with working bodies. However, in the process of decreasing, in interaction with oxygen, there are significant changes in physical and mechanical properties of sapropel. Decisive in the direction selection process of lake sapropels’ use in the economic sector is their moisture exchange and thermodynamic parameters. The complexity of setting the water apart, if freshly extracted sapropels possess only 15-20% of it, shows their strong water-retaining capacity. The above mentioned phenomenon proves the need for their use as an organic fertilizer during the crops growing, as superficial loss of moisture in the soil creates a new global problem. On the basis of deep analysis of the sapropels’ properties, the authors suggest three areas of freshly extracted lake sapropel application in mixtures with leafy part of the crops: in biogas production with its further use as an organic fertilizer; making a compost mixture of organic origin which physical and mechanical properties are approximate as that of the soil; alternative solid fuels in the form of briquettes.
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