Virtual machine described in the paper is a runtime program for controllers in small distributed systems. The machine executes intermediate universal code similar to an assembler, compiled in CPDev engineering environment from source programs written in control languages of IEC 61131-3 standard. The machine is implemented as a C program, so it can run on different target platforms. Data formats and commands of the machine code are presented, together with the machine’s Petri-net model, C implementation involving universal and platform-dependent modules, target hardware interface, input/output programming mechanisms, and practical applications.
The study addresses the challenges facing the law of the sea. Although UNCLOS is rightly described as a constitution of the law of the sea, it does not and cannot give answers to all problems and doubts that arise in practice and that are related to global warming, protection of biodiversity, legal status of genetic resources, controversy concerning shipping, delimitation of areas or the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Hence the question arises, what the ways and means of further development of the law of the sea are. Undoubtedly, one of the possibilities is to develop implementation agreements, of which the third devoted to the protection and sustainable use of marine biodiversity outside national jurisdiction is the subject of an international conference convened by the General Assembly, whose resolutions in the area of the law of the sea play an important role. Undoubtedly, also the importance of the organization of the United Nations system, such as the IMO, FAO, UNESCO, UNEP is significant. There is also the possibility of accepting agreements addressing the issues left by UNCLOS without solution or definition. Not without significance is the soft law and the practice of states as well as the position of the organs appointed by UNCLOS.