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Abstract

The presented article describes the method for determining one of the trace elements occurring in coalbismuth. The subjects of the analysis were coal type 34, 35 and their fly ashes derived from Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa. The main reason for the research was the extensive use of bismuth in many industry sectors. Additionally, bismuth is on the list of deficit elements, therefore the possibility of obtaining an alternative for its recycling source of it is needed, is required. The research was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization in a graphite cuvette. The samples were incinerated at 800°C and microwave mineralization in a high-pressure closed system was performed until the spectrometric analysis was achieved. In order to achieve mineralization, a mixture of HF and HNO3 acids was used to turn the samples into acidic solutions. The preparation of the samples was based on available literature data and own observations. In the experiment, the effects of the additive modifier was modified by changing the temperature in further steps: drying, incineration, cooling, atomization and burning were described. In addition, the palladium modifier was used in order to limit secondary reactions and enable the evaporation of matrix components. The measurement conditions which are presented in this article allow for a linear calibration curve to be established. However, this is not clear and the definitive method for determining the bismuth in coal is carried out through the use of ET-AAS.
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Abstract

In this study, heavy metals pollutions in waters, soils and vegetables were investigated from farms, near oil refinery in south of Tehran city, Iran (Shahre Ray). The most important heavy metals in Iranian oil are vanadium, cobalt, nickel, arsenic and mercury (V, Co, Ni, As, Hg). In this region, the concentration of heavy metals in soils, well waters and leafy edible vegetables were evaluated in ten different points of farms. Geographic information systems (GIS) were used to estimate the levels of heavy metals concentration at unmeasured locations. After sample preparation, concentrations of heavy metals in vegetables, soils and waters were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). Five different leafy edible vegetables from farms, i.e., Persian leek, dill, parsley, spinach and radish were sampled in spring, summer and autumn 2012. In vegetables and well water samples, the concentrations of V, Ni and Co were above the permissible limit of heavy metals as compared to WHO guidelines and the concentrations of these metals in agricultural soils were found to be lower in accordance to soil references. The industrial waste waters had high concentration of heavy metals in this area. In consequence, the results of this study indicate that industrial waste water can cause pollution in well waters and edible vegetables. So, this region is not suitable for cultivation and growing vegetables.
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