Nanostructured thermoelectric materials receiving great attention for its high thermoelectric performance. In this research, nanostructured n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 alloys have prepared using high energy ball milling and followed by spark plasma sintering. Also, we have varied ball milling time to investigate milling time parameter on the thermoelectric properties of n-type Bi2Te2.7Se0.3 powder. The powders were discrete at 10 min milling and later particles tend to agglomerate at higher milling time due to cold welding. The bulk fracture surface display multi-scale grains where small grains intersperse in between large grains. The maximum Seebeck coefficient value was obtained at 20-min milling time due to their lower carrier density. The κ values were decreased with increasing milling time due to the decreasing trend observed in their κL values. The highest ZT of 0.7 at 350 K was observed for 30-min milling time which was ascribed to its lower thermal conductivity. The Vickers hardness values also greatly improved due to their fine microstructure.
In this paper, an analysis of various factors affecting machined surface texture is presented. The investigation was focused on ball end mill inclination against the work piece (defined by surface inclination angle a. Surface roughness was investigated in a 3D array, and measurements were conducted parallel to the feed motion direction. The analysis of machined surface irregularities as a function of frequency (wavelength A), on the basis of the Power Density Spectrum - PDS was also carried out. This kind of analysis is aimed at valuation of primary factors influencing surface roughness generation as well as its randomness. Subsequently, a surface roughness model including cutter displacements was developed. It was found that plain cutting with ball end mill (surface inclination angle a= 0°) is unfavorable from the point of view of surface roughness, because in cutter’s axis the cutting speed vc ~ 0 m/min. This means that a cutting process does not occur, whereas on the machined surface some characteristics marks can be found. These marks do not appear in case of a* 0°, because the cutting speed vc * 0 on the fill I length of the active cutting edge and as a result, the machined surface texture is more homogenous. Surface roughness parameters determined on the basis of the model including cutter displacements are closer to experimental data for cases with inclination angles a* 0°, in comparison with those determined for plain cutting (a= 0°). It is probably caused by higher contribution in surface irregularities generation of plastic and elastic deformations cumulated near the cutter’s free end than kinematic and geometric parameters, as well as cutter displacements.
The Mn-Zn ferrite powders prepared by high energy ball milling were heat-treated, subsequently compacted and sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Based on the observation of microstructure, the characteristics of samples after SPS were investigated and compared with ones after conventional sintering. The size of initial powders was approximately 650 nm and decreased to 230 nm after milling at 300 rpm for 3 h. After heat treatment at 973K for 1h, the milled powders became larger to approximately 550 nm in size again and the peaks of Mn2O3 disappeared in XRD patterns. In the samples after SPS, the Fe2O3 and MnZnFe2O4 phases decomposed at the higher temperatures than 1173K and 1373K, respectively, while only MnZnFe2O4 phase was detected in the samples conventionally sintered at 1273~1673K. As the sintering temperature increased, the relative density after SPS increased more quickly than that after conventional sintering. In particular, it reached approximately 99% after SPS at 1473K.
The current study were performed in order to assess the fabrication possibility of the metal-ceramic composites based on nanocrystalline substrates. The influence of the variable time of the high energy ball-milling (10, 30 and 50 h) on the structure, pores morphology and microhardness of Ti/ZrO2 and Ti/Al2O3 compositions was studied. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the composite formation for all milling times and sintering in the case of Ti/ZrO2 system. Decomposition of substrates during milling process of Ti/Al2O3 system was also observed. Additionally, the changes of lattice parameter as a function of milling time were studied. The morphology of powders and the microstructure of the sintered samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Also, analysis of microhardness and pores structure were performed.
The microstructure and corrosion properties of spark plasma sintered yttria dispersed and yttria free duplex and ferritic stainless samples were studied. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) was carried out at 1000°C by applying 50 MPa pressure with holding time of 5 minutes. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) tests were employed to evaluate pitting corrosion resistance of the samples. Corrosion studies were carried out in 0.5, 1 and 2 M concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 solutions at different quiet time of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 seconds. Yttria dispersed stainless steel samples show more resistance to corrosion than yttria free stainless steel samples. Pitting potential decreases with increase in reaction time from 2 to 10 seconds. Similarly, as concentration of NaCl and H2SO4 increases from 0.5 M to 2 M the corrosion resistance decrements due to the availability of more Cl¯ and SO4 2¯ ions at higher concentration.
Mixture of nickel and titanium powders were milled in planetary mill under argon atmosphere for 100 hours at room temperature. Every 10 hours the structure, morphology and chemical composition was studied by X-ray diffraction method (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) as well as electron transmission microscope (TEM). Analysis revealed that elongation of milling time caused alloying of the elements. After 100 hours of milling the powders was in nanocrystalline and an amorphous state. Also extending of milling time affected the crystal size and microstrains of the alloying elements as well as the newly formed alloy. Crystallization of amorphous alloys proceeds above 600°C. In consequence, the alloy (at room temperature) consisted of mixture of the B2 parent phase and a small amount of the B19' martensite. Dependently on the milling time and followed crystallization the NiTi alloy can be received in a form of the powder with average crystallite size from 1,5 up to 4 nm.
The dispersion of nanoparticles in the host matrix is a novel approach to enhance the thermoelectric performance. In this work, we incorporate the TiC (x = 0, 1 and 2 wt.%) nanoparticles into a p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 matrix, and their effects on microstructure and thermoelectric properties were systematically investigated. The existence of TiC contents in a base matrix was confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The grain size decreases with increasing the addition of TiC content due to grain boundary hardening where the dispersed nanoparticles acted as pinning points in the entire matrix. The electrical conductivity significantly decreased and the Seebeck coefficient was slightly enhanced, which attributes to the decrease in carrier concentration by the addition of TiC content. Meanwhile, the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.97 W/mK for the 2 wt.% TiC nanocomposite sample, which is ~16% lower than 0 wt.% TiC sample. The maximum figure of merit of 0.90 was obtained at 350 K for the 0 wt.% TiC sample due to high electrical conductivity. Moreover, the Vickers hardness was improved with increase the addition of TiC contents.