The two experiments described in this article are focused on semantic priming in the context of lexical ambiguity and hierarchic model of mental lexicon. For both experiments, the verification method was a decision taken in the process of translating a sentence from Polish (L1) to English (L2). The decision was a result of solving dilemma of interpretation of the particular sentence that included homonym. The sentences used in the experiments were prepared in a manner that allowed them to be interpreted in at least two ways – each way being a direct result of interpretation of a ambiguous word meaning included in a sentence. In this study the secondary meanings of the homonyms were primed. In the first experiment the primes were presented in L2 – therefore this part of the study was concentrated on interlingual aspect of semantic priming. The second experiment was focused on intralingual aspect of semantic priming and the primes were presented in L1. The results of both experiments have shown the effect of semantic priming of ambiguous words’ meanings when translating from one language to another. Participants used significantly more often (when translating sentences from Polish to English) those English words the meaning of which was primed in the experimental groups during the first phase of the conducted experiments. We discuss the results in the context of the hierarchic model of mental lexicon in the case of bilingualism and we suggest possible paths for future research.
The question of what is the difference between borrowing and code-switching has attracted the attention of scholars far and wide and gave at the same time rise to a plethora of publications in order to draw a boundary between these two terms. In the most recent of these publications (Grosjean 1982, Poplack & Meechan 1995 & 1998; to name but a few), it has been often argued that borrowings are donor-language items that are integrated in the grammar of the recipient language at a community level, while code-switches take place at individual level and they retain the grammar of the language from which they derive. However, the current political and economic uncertainties in various regions of the world have been found to cause mass refugee movements to conflict-free places, where contact between newcomers and locals usually lead to some kind of linguistic interinfluencing. The current study discusses the contactinduced German-origin lone lexical items used by Iraqi-Arabic-speaking refugees in Germany. It is the aim of this study to show whether or not these lexical items can be considered as code-switches or established borrowings. The data I am analyzing come from spontaneous and elicited conversations of the first and second wave of Iraqi- Arabic-speaking refugees and asylum seekers to Germany as well as from online- and paper-pencil-questionnaires.
The aim of the article is to present loan vocabulary connected to clothes and ornaments. The Old-Believers’ dialect is subject to Polish interference on the lexical level because vocabulary is the linguistic element which is changing most rapidly. The dialect studied is situated in the Polish linguistic environment and thus it is isolated due to its lack of territorial contact with the Russian language. It belongs to the so-called Pskov group – the western Central Great Russian akanie dialects. Since the 1950s, when research into the dialect was initiated by Iryda Grek-Pabisowa and Irena Maryniakowa, the biggest increase in loan words has been noticed in the vocabulary related to health, jobs, clothes and ornaments, and the expressions used to refer to the new reality: the progress of civilisation, education, transport and agriculture. The lexemes borrowed are subject to various adaptation processes, for example, phonetic, stress-pattern, morphological or derivational ones.
This article presents a media-studies profile of the bilingual periodical Dialog. Magazyn Polsko-Niemiecki / Dialog. Deutsch-Polnisches Magazin, which is the biggest project of this kind in Europe. In spite of occasional problems with funding, it has been around without a break since 1987. Committed to the goal of building a better understanding between two nations torn apart by war and strife, the editors have opened their magazine to all aspects — political, cultural and economic — of Polish-German relations.