226 papers by Polish authors and co-authors have been collected. They deal with Antarctic or sub-Antarctic fishes and also their parasites. The majority (35.7%) of the publications discuss fish biology including growth, age, maturity, feeding and occurrence of particular species in the area. Fewer papers are devoted to parasitology (26.0%). Papers dealing with fish biomass and exploitation make up 18.5%. Papers dealing with morphology and systematics make up 6.6%. The remaining papers are devoted to technology, physiology, palaeontology and others.
In the paper, the problem of isothermic DNA sequencing by hybridization, without any errors in its input data, is presented and an exact polynomial-time algorithm solving the problem is described. The correctness of the algorithm is con.rmed by an enumerative proof.
The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw, one of the largest nonacademic biological research centres in Poland, celebrates its 100th anniversary. The Institute was established in 1918 by the Scientific Society of Warsaw. In 1945, after World War II, it was re-established in Łódź and in 1952 incorporated into the newly founded Polish Academy of Sciences. During the period of 1953–1955 a newly erected building at 3 Pasteur Street in Warsaw became the home of the Nencki Institute. Today, the Nencki Institute strives for excellence in basic research in the broad sense of biological sciences. Neurosciences and biological and molecular basic of civilization diseases represent two main research areas of the Institute in the context of the society needs to improve the quality of life. One of the strategic activities of the Institute is investments in bio- imaging.This has recently resulted in inclusion of the Institute in the EUROBIOIMAGING project of the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). An excellent example of a synergy of basic and innovative studies is the Neurobiology Centre established at the Nencki Institute in 2010–2013 as part of a strategic project entitled the CePT. Additionally, the Nencki Institute trains nearly 200 PhD students under various programmes, including the H2020.
The article is a modified Polish version of my Director’s report published in the “Annual Report 2017–March 2018” of the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw (www.iimcb.gov.pl). After 20 years of being in charge of the Institute and a few months before the end of my final term as its director, I summarize our achievements, failures, lost opportunities and recall how it all began. I also give the names of people who formed organizing team of the Institute in the nineties, names of the first International Advisory Board members and names of the Institutes’ directors who will be in charge of it since July 2018.
In the investigated area krill occured in low abundance. It was recorded mainly above the shelf and above the continental slope close to the Palmer Archipelago and near the northern shores of Elephant Island. In the central part of the Bransfield Strait E. superba was caught in especially small quantities. In general krill of small size occurred, the size decreasing from the west to the east. Mature krill was dominan in the western part of the investigated area, whereas juveniles in the eastern part. Gravid females were caught very rarely.
In this paper we described three Art & Science projects organized by the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology (Polish Academy of Sciences), Marcel Nencki Foundation for the Support of Biological Sciences and the Art Department of the University of Rzeszów. First project, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Nencki Institute, was entitled “Biological imaging: inspiration by invisible world” and took place in Mikołajki in 2017. Next two projects were relating to “Art of Biodiversity” (Rzeszów, 2018) and “Power of Biological Structures” (Przeworsk, 2019). The aim of the projects was to introduce ideas of modern experimental biology to artist. All symposia/workshops were followed by few exhibitions at the Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Art Department of the University of Rzeszów, etc. Some of paintings originated during these projects established Nencki Art Collection, collection of modern art at Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology.
This article provides an initial analysis, from a historical standpoint, of the problematic nature of conceptualizations of the notion of gene in molecular genetics. The starting point is an historical outline of the relation between classical genetics and molecular genetics; it is indicated how the conceptual baggage of classical genetics influenced the development of the concepts of gene used later in molecular biology. I also reveal two problems of genes in the philosophy of science, i.e., skepticism concerning genes and the concept of nominal gene. I conclude that concept of gene functioning within the framework of molecular genetics should be considered from the point of view of experimentalism and pragmatism. It seems that the concept of gene on the molecular level should be conceptualized—in order to remain functional—as broadly as possible and in relation to genetic material.
DNA sequencing remains one of the most important problems in molecular and computational biology. One of the methods used for this purpose is sequencing by hybridization. In this approach usually DNA chips composed of a full library of oligonucleotides of a given length are used, but in principle it is possible to use another types of chips. Isothermic DNA chips, being one of them, when used for sequencing may reduce hybridization error rate. However, it was not clear if a number of errors following from subsequence repetitions is also reduced in this case. In this paper a method for estimating resolving power of isothermic DNA chips is described which allows for a comparison of such chips and the classical ones. The analysis of the resolving power shows that the probability of sequencing errors caused by subsequence repetitions is greater in the case of isothermic chips in comparison to their classical counterparts of a similar cardinality. This result suggests that isothermic chips should be chosen carefully since in some cases they may not give better results than the classical ones.
A gigantic amounts of data and information on molecules that constitute the very complex cell machinery have been collected, classified and stored in data banks. Although we posses enormous amount of knowledge about the properties and functions of thousands of molecular entities, we are still far from understanding how they do work in a living cell. It is clear now that these molecules (genes, proteins) are not autonomous, that there is no direct linear relation between genotype and phenotype, and that the majority of functions are carried and executed by concerted molecular activity, and that the majority of diseases are multifactorial. A basic property of the matter in a living cell (both normal and pathologic) is an interaction between variety of macromolecules, mainly proteins, genes (DNA) etc. In a process of self-organization they are able to form an active molecular biologic system – a complex, labile and dynamic network which integrity is secured by non-covalent bounds. In this essay some basic properties of network structure and the universal rules that govern them are described. Network or system biology is promising new research approach in biology and medicine.
The paper comprises the review of all 23 known valid species along with synonyms and polytomic keys based on morphological features. Mature specimens of 8 species occur in fishes, 4 in birds, 11 in mammals. Each species settles in a definite section of the digestive tract. The structure of a population is dependent upon the time which has passed since the moment of invasion and the intensity of infestation. Acathocephalans can be found in hosts all the year round, but incomplete seasonality of the occurrence of 2 fish parasites has been recorded. Fish parasites show wide specificity in relation to the hosts mentioned while bird and mammal parasites specificity is narrow. The majority of acanthocephalan species have circumpolar distribution but only 3 have been found inside the polar circle and the other 7 are common in the environs of subcontinental archipelagoes. Acanthocephalans do not yield precedence as far as the diversity of species and infestation intensity are concerned in the Antarctic to other groups of parasite helminths. Their great importance results from their mass occurrence in the vertebrates which are the focus of. man's practical interests — fishes, seals and whales.
This review compiles the pioneers of biological sciences who have been born and educated on the territories, which has got political independence as Poland state in 1918. Their work and passing knowledge to the next generations had a great impact not only on the progress in science but also on a newly formed Polish society. Many of these contributions laid foundations for chemistry, physics, biochemistry, genetics and other biological sciences.
Krill population structure was studied in Western Antarctic in austral spring and summer 1986/87. At the end of October and the beginning of November in the waters around Elephant Island the mean krill length was 44 mm and sexually mature specimens dominated. Juveniles were absent. In the Bransfield Strait the mean E. superba length was 43 mm. and males slightly overdominated females. The share of females with spermatophores and of immature females was higher than in the Elephant Island area. Juveniles were also not recorded. Krill was most diversified around Elephant Island in January; juveniles and females with ovaries filled with eggs were recorded. It was found that 84% of krill population was infested by ciliate protozoans (Apostomatida).