The decolourization of Turquoise Blue HFG by immobilized cells of Lysinibacillus fusiformis B26 was investigated. Cells of L. fusiformis B26 were immobilized by entrapment in agar and calcium alginate matrices and attached in pumice particles. The effects of operational conditions (e.g., agar concentrations, cell concentrations, temperature, and inoculum amount) on microbial decolourization by immobilized cells were investigated. The results revealed that alginate was proven to be the best as exhibiting maximum decolourization (69.62%), followed by agar (55.55%) at 40°C. Pumice particles were the poorest. Optimum conditions for agar matrix were found: concentration was 3%, cell amount was 0.5 g and temperature was 40°C (55.55%). Ca-alginate beads were loaded with 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g of wet cell pellets and the highest colour removal activity was observed with 2.0 g of cell pellet at 40°C for alginate beads. Also, 0.5 and 1.0 g of pumice particles that were loaded with 0.25 and 0.5 g of cell pellets respectively were used and the results were found very similar to each other.
The elemental composition and morphology of aerobic granules in sequencing batch reactors (GSBRs) treating high-nitrogen digester supernatant was investigated. The investigation particularly focused on the effect of the number of anoxic phases (one vs. two) in the cycle and the dose of external organics loading (450 mg COD/(L·cycle) vs. 540 mg COD/(L·cycle)) on granule characteristics. Granules in all reactors were formed of many single cells of rod and spherical bacteria. Addition of the second anoxic phase in the GSBR cycle resulted in enhanced settling properties of the granules of about 10.6% and at the same time decreased granule diameter of about 19.4%. The study showed that external organics loading was the deciding factor in the elemental composition of biomass. At 540 mg COD/(L·cycle) the granules contained more weight% of C, S and N, suggesting more volatile material in the granule structure. At lower organics loadings granules had the higher diameter of granules which limited the diffusion of oxygen and favored precipitation of mineral compounds in the granule interior. In this biomass higher content of Mg, P and Ca, was observed.
This article presents results of studies on multicriteria optimisation in the decopperisation process of flash smelting slags coming from the process of decopperisation at the "Głogów II" Copper Smelter. Measurements of viscosity were conducted using a high-temperature viscometer manufactured by Brookfield company. An addition in the form of calcium fluoride has an advantageous influence on decreasing the liquidus temperature of slag, and the effect of decreasing viscosity at the participation of calcium fluoride is significant. A motivation to conduct studies on viscosity of decopperised slags is an optimisation of the process of decopperisation at an improvement of this process parameters, i.e. the time of melt per one production cycle and consumption of electric power in the whole process. The efficiency of optimisation of the process course depends not only on an accepted criterion of the quality of controlling, a type of technological parameters, but also, to large extent, on characteristics and features of these parameters. CaCO3 currently added to the process of decopperisation efficiently decreases viscosity of flash slag, at the same time has influence on an increase of the yield of copper in alloy, but on the other hand, it increases the mass of slag, artificially under representing concentration of this metal. The article is completed with a conclusion of discussed issues, stating that a search for a new technological addition is still necessary,
The influence of external factors, temperature and flow velocity on the corrosion processes St3 in model solutions petrochemical plant recycled water with high salinity and hardness without open systems and in the presence of the inhibiting composition. It was found that an increase in temperature leads to a linear increase in corrosion rates, and the change in circulating water flow rate leads to the extreme nature of corrosion processes; optimal conditions are determined. Recommended use of cathodic inhibitors or mixed type inhibitor, in particular, the composition "SVOD-BI" (means for controlling the biological corrosion), which can significantly reduce the effect of temperature and flow on the corrosion rate St3, promotes the growth and strengthening of the oxide film in the presence of oxygen, increases the degree of protection of steel and preventing the formation of at its surface carbonate-calcium deposits.
Shoot tips excised from shoot culture of Salvia officinalis were encapsulated in 2% or 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and exposed to 50 mM calcium chloride for complexation. Immediately or after 6, 12 or 24 weeks of storage at 4°C, the synthetic seeds were cultured for 6 weeks on half-strength MS medium supplemented with indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) (0.1 mg/l) and solidified with 0.7% agar. The frequency of shoot and root emergence from encapsulated shoot tips was affected by the concentrations of sodium alginate and additives in the gel matrix (sucrose, gibberellic acid, MS nutrient medium) as well as duration of storage. The frequency of shoot and root induction of non-stored synthetic seeds was highest with shoot tips encapsulated with 2% sodium alginate containing 1.5% sucrose and 0.5 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA3). Shoot tips maintained their viability and ability to develop shoots even after 24 weeks of storage when they were encapsulated in 3% alginate with 1/3 MS medium, sucrose (1.5%) and GA3 (0.25 mg/l). Root formation tended to decrease with storage time. Overall, 90% of the plantlets derived from stored and non-stored synthetic seeds survived in the greenhouse and grew to phenotypically normal plants. This procedure can enable the use of synthetic seed technology for germplasm conservation of S. officinalis, a plant species of high medical and commercial value.