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Number of results: 7
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Abstract

An efficient system of micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis from root-derived callus was established in Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica L.). Twenty-six callus lines were induced on MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium supplemented with combinations of NAA (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L) plus BA (0, 1 and 2 mg/L), or 2,4-D (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L) plus TDZ (0, 1 and 2 mg/L). Subsequently, two types of somatic embryos were obtained from callus cultures and named S-type and I-type embryos. The S-type embryos were obtained from an 18-monthold callus line which was induced and maintained at 2 mg/L TDZ and 0.1 mg/L 2,4-D near the end of each period of the subculture. These embryos have a developmental barrier, which did not pass through the torpedo stage and could be overcome by a supplement of 2 or 5 mg/L BA. The I-type embryos were induced from 3-month-old callus when transferred onto induction media, i.e., MS supplemented with TDZ (2 and 5 mg/L) plus 2,4-D (0 and 0.1 mg/L). The significantly highest response, i.e., 13.3 embryos per callus clump was obtained at 2 mg/L TDZ. In this study, the results reveal that TDZ has a crucial effect on embryogenic callus induction, proliferation and subsequent somatic embryogenesis.
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Abstract

In vitro embryogenic callus is a critical factor for genetic transformation of rice, especially for indica varieties. In this study, we investigated the relationship between polyamines, including putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), and callus browning, and we studied the effect of exogenous Put on callus regeneration and on the content of endogenous polyamines. In addition, the expression levels of arginine decarboxylase gene (Adcl) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase gene (Samdc) in embryogenic callus were studied by quantitative Real-time PCR analysis. The results showed that the contents of endogenous Put and Spd in the browning callus were significantly lower than those in normal callus. Exogenous Put could effectively improve the growing state of callus of indica rice and enhance the development of embryogenic callus. The content of endogenous polyamines in embryogenic callus, especially Spd and Spm, was increased after addition of exogenous Put. Additionally, exogenous Put also had an obvious impact on the expression levels of Adcl but partial effect on the expression levels of Samdc gene. This study could increase the knowledge of both embryogenic callus induction and polyamine catabolism in callus in indica rice.
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Abstract

An efficient system for plant regeneration of Senna occidentalis from hypocotyl-derived callus was developed. Callus was induced from leaf and hypocotyl explants on MS medium amended with 9.04 μM 2,4-D + 2.22 μM BAP and 10.74 μM NAA + 2.22 μM BAP. Medium browning due to leaching of compounds from callus was encountered and ameliorated through incorporation of 2.84 μM ascorbic acid. Leaf-derived callus showed no shoot induction ability, while hypocotyl-derived callus produced shoots in all cytokinin-amended treatments and also in combination with 2.68 μM NAA. For shoot formation, BAP-augmented treatments were better than medium with Kin added. Rhizogenesis was better on 1/2 MS basal medium with IBA than in the NAA and IAA treatments. Regenerated plants were acclimatized with 94% survival and showed similar morphology to field-grown plants.
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Abstract

We analyzed DNA damage, mitotic activity and polyploidization in Crepis capillaris callus cells during short- and long-term in vitro culture, and the influence of plant growth regulators on these processes. Changes in the concentration of growth regulators altered the stability of callus. The level of DNA damage was highly dependent on the growth regulator composition of the medium. Cytokinin at high concentrations damaged DNA in the absence of auxin. Short- and long-term callus differed in sensitivity to growth regulators. Mitotic activity changed when callus was transferred to medium with modified growth regulators. Callus cell nuclear DNA content increased with age and in response to plant growth regulators. Hormones played a role in the genetic changes in C. capillaris callus culture. We demonstrated the usefulness of C. capillaris callus culture as a model for analyzing the effect of culture conditions, including plant growth regulators, on genetic stability.
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Abstract

We investigated direct and indirect formation of somatic embryogenesis in Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower), a very important vegetable crop worldwide. Direct somatic embryogenesis, which is rather rare, was achieved in culture of 2-week-old hypocotyl explants of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 mg/l kinetin. Initial induction of embryogenic callus was achieved on MS supplemented with very low concentrations of 2,4-D (0.05 mg/l and 0.1 mg/l). Indirect somatic embryogenesis from leaf sections was obtained on MS supplemented with 0.05 or 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D. We examined various stages of somatic embryos (globular, heart, torpedo, cotyledonary). More embryos per explant were produced through the indirect pathway (23-25) than through the direct pathway (14-19). The number of embryos produced was high. There is a potential for recurrent, repeated or secondary somatic embryogenesis, possibly an unlimited source for mass propagation and ideal for synthetic seed production in this species. Plant regeneration was achieved on half-strength MS medium without any hormones.
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Abstract

Using four Polish Vicia faba L. minor cultivars (Bronto, Dino, Tibo, Nadwiślański) we obtained callus from epicotyl fragments collected from 7- and 14-day-old seedlings and from cotyledonary nodes of immature seeds. Callus induction efficiency varied from 81% to 97% depending on the origin of the explant. Shoots regenerated only from the cotyledonary nodes of all tested cultivars. On average, 50% of the explants grown on MS medium containing 1.0 mg dm-3 NAA, 0.5 mg dm-3 BAP, 0.25 mg dm-3 GA3, 1.0 g dm-3 casein hydrolysate, 750 mg dm-3 inositol, 3% sucrose and 0.4% agar were able to regenerate shoots. The number of calluses regenerating shoots was highest from explants collected from fruiting nodes 6 to 9. Decapitation of donor plants increased the percentage of calluses regenerating shoots. On half-strength MS medium with 2 mg dm-3 NAA and on 1/2 MS alone, 11% of the shoots rooted; on 1/2 MS with 1 g dm-3 AC, 8.0% rooted. The regenerants were transferred to Perlite with Hoagland medium and acclimated. Ten percent of the regenerated plants survived the acclimation process, flowered and produced seeds.
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Abstract

The Arabidopsis CDKG;2 gene encodes a putative cyclin-dependent Ser/Thr protein kinase of unknown biological function. This gene shows structural similarity to animal and human cyclin-dependent (PITSLRE) kinases. This study used the homozygous knockout cdkg;2 mutant based on T-DNA insertional line SALK_090262 to study the effect of mutation of the CDKG;2 gene on explant response and in vitro plant regeneration. For callus induction and proliferation, hypocotyls and cotyledons of 3-day-old seedlings of cdkg;2 and A. thaliana ecotype Col-0 were cultured on solid MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (2 mg l-1). Organogenesis was induced after callus transfer on MS + TDZ (0.5 mg l-1). The initiation time of callus and shoot induction differed between the mutant and control cultures. Shoot regeneration after callus transfer on MS + TDZ was delayed in cdkg;2 (31 days versus 7 days in Col- 0). Shoots formed on callus derived from Col-0 hypocotyls but not on cotyledon-derived callus; in cdkg;2, shoots developed on both callus types. Mutant shoots did not form roots, regenerants were dwarfed, and inflorescences had small bud-like flowers with a reduced corolla and generative organs. Abnormalities observed during cdkg;2 organogenesis suggest a role of CDKG;2 as a regulator of adventitious root initiation
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