A possibility to control the strength, hardness and ductility of the L35HM low-alloy structural cast steel by the applied tempering temperature is discussed in the paper. Tests were carried out on samples taken from the two randomly selected industrial melts. Heat treatment of the cast samples included quenching at 900 °C, cooling in an aqueous solution of polymer, and tempering at 600 and 650 °C. The obtained results showed that the difference in the tempering temperature equal to 50 °C can cause the difference of 121 MPa in the values of UTS and of 153 MPa in the values of 0.2%YS. For both melts tempered at 600 °C, the average values of UTS and 0.2%YS were equal to 995 MPa and 933 MPa, respectively. The values of EL and RA did not show any significant differences. Attention was drawn to large differences in strength and hardness observed between the melts tempered at 600 and 650 °C. Despite differences in the mechanical properties of the examined cast steel, the obtained results were superior to those specified by the standard.
Wear resistance of TiC-cast steel metal matrix composite has been investigated. Composites were obtained with SHSB method known as SHS synthesis during casting. It has been shown the differences in wear between composite and base cast steel. The Miller slurry machine test were used to determine wear loss of the specimens. The slurry was composed of SiC and water. The worn surface of specimens after test, were studied by SEM. Experimental observation has shown that surface of composite zone is not homogenous and consist the matrix lakes. Microscopic observations revealed the long grooves with SiC particles indented in the base alloy area, and spalling pits in the composite area. Due to the presence of TiC carbides on composite layer, specimens with TiC reinforced cast steel exhibited higher abrasion resistance. The wear of TiC reinforced cast steel mechanism was initially by wearing of soft matrix and in second stage by polishing and spalling of TiC. Summary weight loss after 16hr test was 0,14÷0,23 g for composite specimens and 0,90 g for base steel
High-alloy corrosion-resistant ferritic-austenitic steels and cast steels are a group of high potential construction materials. This is evidenced by the development of new alloys both low alloys grades such as the ASTM 2101 series or high alloy like super or hyper duplex series 2507 or 2707 [1-5]. The potential of these materials is also presented by the increasing frequency of sintered components made both from duplex steel powders as well as mixtures of austenitic and ferritic steels [6, 7]. This article is a continuation of the problems presented in earlier works [5, 8, 9] and its inspiration were technological observed problems related to the production of duplex cast steel. The analyzed AISI A3 type cast steel is widely used in both wet exhaust gas desulphurisation systems in coal fired power plants as well as in aggressive working environments. Technological problems such as hot cracking presented in works [5, 8], with are effects of the rich chemical composition and phenomena occurring during crystallization, must be known to the technologists. The presented in this work phenomena which occur during the crystallization and cooling of ferritic-austenitic cast steel were investigated using numerical methods with use of the ThermoCalc and FactSage® software, as well with use of experimental thermal-derivative analysis.
This paper discusses changes in the microstructure and abrasive wear resistance of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel modified with rare earth metals (REM). The changes were assessed using scanning microscopy. The wear response was determined in the Miller test to ASTM G75. Abrasion tests were supplemented with the surface profile measurements of non-modified and modified cast steel using a Talysurf CCI optical profilometer. It was demonstrated that the modification substantially affected the microstructure of the alloy, leading to grain size reduction and changed morphology of non-metallic inclusions. The observed changes in the microstructure resulted in a three times higher impact strength (from 33 to 99 kJ/cm2 ) and more than two times higher resistance to cracking (from 116 to 250 MPa). The following surface parameters were computed: Sa: Arithmetic mean deviation of the surface, Sq: Root-mean-square deviation of the surface, Sp: Maximum height of the peak Sv: Maximum depth of the valley, Sz: Ten Point Average, Ssk: Asymmetry of the surface, Sku: Kurtosis of the surface. The findings also indicated that the addition of rare earth metals had a positive effect on the abrasion behaviour of G17CrMo5-5 cast steel.
The paper presents the results of examination concerning optimization of the σ phase precipitates with respect to the functional properties of ferritic-austenitic cast steel. The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3-3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear. The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. Morphology and quantities of σ phase precipitates were determined, as well as its influence on the erosion and corrosion wear resistance. It was shown that annealing at 800°C or 900°C significantly improves tribological properties as compared with the supersaturated state, and the best erosion and corrosion wear resistance achieved due to the ferrite decomposition δ → γ’ + σ was exhibited in the case of annealing at the temperature of 800°C for 3 hours.
Widely used in the power and mining industry, cast Hadfield steel is resistant to wear, but only when operating under impact loads. Components made from this alloy exposed to the effect of abrasion under load-free conditions are known to suffer rapid and premature wear. To increase the abrasion resistance of cast high-manganese steel under the conditions where no dynamic loads are operating, primary titanium carbides are formed in the process of cast steel melting, to obtain in the alloy after solidification and heat treatment, the microstructure composed of very hard primary carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix of a hardness superior to the hardness of common cast Hadfield steel. Hard titanium carbides ultimately improve the wear resistance of components operating under shear conditions. The measured microhardness of the as-cast matrix in samples tested was observed to increase with the increasing content of titanium and was 380 HV0.02 for the content of 0.4%, 410 HV0.02 for the content of 1.5% and 510 HV0.02 for the content of 2 and 2.5%. After solution heat treatment, the microhardness of the matrix was 460÷480 HV0.02 for melts T2, T3 and T6, and 580 HV0.02 for melt T4, and was higher than the values obtained in common cast Hadfield steel (370 HV0.02 in as-cast state and 340÷370 HV0.02 after solution heat treatment). The measured microhardness of alloyed cementite was 1030÷1270 HV0.02; the microhardness of carbides reached even 2650÷4000 HV0.02.
The examined material comprised two grades of corrosion-resistant cast steel, namely GX2CrNiMoN25-6-3 and GX2CrNiMoCuN25-6-3- 3, used for example in elements of systems of wet flue gas desulphurisation in power industry. The operating conditions in media heated up to 70°C and containing Cl- and SO4 ions and solid particles produce high erosive and corrosive wear.The work proposes an application of the σ phase as a component of precipitation strengthening mechanism in order to increase the functional properties of the material. The paper presents the results of examination of the kinetics of σ phase precipitation at a temperature of 800°C and at times ranging from 30 to 180 minutes. Changes in the morphology of precipitates of the σ phase were determined using the value of shape factor R. Resistance to erosion-corrosion wear of duplex cast steel was correlated with the kinetics of sigma phase precipitating.
An influence of a decreased Cr content on the microstructure of the highly alloyed Cr-Ni cast steel, duplex type, melted under laboratory conditions, was characterized in the paper. The microstructure investigations were performed in the initial state and after the heat treatment (solution annealing) at 1060°C as well as the phase transformation kinetics at continuous cooling was measured. The wear resistance of the investigated cast steel was tested and compared with the 24%Cr-5%Ni-2.5%Mo cast steel. The Cr content decrease, in ferritic-austenitic cast steels (duplex), from 24-26%Cr to 18% leads to the changes of the castings microstructure and eliminating of a brittle σ phase. In dependence of the casting cooling rate, apart from ferrite and austenite, also fine martensite precipitates occur in the casting structure. It was shown that the investigated cast steel is characterised by a slightly lower wear resistance than the typical cast steel duplex grades.
Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.
Cast high-manganese Hadfield steel is commonly used for machine components operating under dynamic load conditions. Their high fracture toughness and abrasive wear resistance is the result of an austenitic structure, which - while being ductile - at the same time tends to surface harden under the effect of cold work. Absence of dynamic loads (e.g. in the case of sand abrasion) causes rapid and premature wear of parts. In order to improve the abrasive wear resistance of cast high-manganese steel for operation under the conditions free from dynamic loads, primary titanium carbides are produced in this cast steel during melting process to obtain in castings, after melt solidification, the microstructure consisting of an austenitic matrix and primary carbides uniformly distributed therein. After heat treatment, the microhardness of the austenitic matrix of such cast steel is up to 580 μHV20 and the resulting carbides may reach even 4000 μHV20. The impact strength of this cast steel varies from 57 to 129 and it decreases with titanium content. Compared to common cast Hadfield steel, the abrasive wear resistance determined in Miller test is at least twice as high for the 0.4% Ti alloy and continues growing with titanium content.
In the paper the results and analysis of corrosion tests were presented for low-alloyed cast steel in as-cast state and after heat treatment operations. Such alloys are applied for heavy loaded parts manufacturing, especially for mining industry. The corrosion test were performed in conditions of high salinity, similar to those occurring during the coal mining. The results have shown, that small changes in chemical composition and the heat treatment influence significantly the corrosion behaviour of studied low-alloyed cast steels.
Cast Hadfield steel is characterised by high abrasion resistance, provided, however, that it is exposed to the effect of dynamic loads. During abrasion without loading, e.g. under the impact of loose sand jet, its wear resistance drops very drastically. To increase the abrasion resistance of this alloy under the conditions where no pressure is acting, primary vanadium carbides are formed in the metallurgical process, to obtain a composite structure after the melt solidification. The primary, very hard, carbides uniformly distributed in the austenitic matrix are reported to double the wear resistance of samples subjected to the effect of a silicon carbide-water mixture.
The rolls for the hot rolling finishing stands are cast centrifugally as two or three-layer rolls. The working layer is called a shell. The material of the shell is selected according to the position of the respective roll in the final finishing stand of the rolling mill. Typically, a combination of rolls made of a high-chromium cast iron + indefinite cast iron or high-speed steel + indefinite cast iron is commonly used. Great attention has been paid to indefinite cast iron in recent years and this material received a number of modifications that led to the increase of material properties up to 20% in comparison to the ordinary indefinite cast iron. But the goals of the new generation of material for hot rollers were chosen higher: increasing of production about 30% and more. This material has specific physical properties, heat treatment requirements as well as rolling mill requirements as is stated in the paper. It is expected that introduction of this material will reduce the difference between wear of the front and finishing stands, which can extend rolling campaigns and have a positive effect on the reduction rolls exchanges, the grinding of the rolls and the reduction of downtime.