In the article problems related to human labor and factors affecting the increasing use of industrial robots are discussed. Since human factors affect the production processes stability, robots are preferred to apply. The application of robots is characterized by higher performance and reliability comparing to human labor. The problem is how to determine the real difference in work efficiency between human operator and robot. The aim of the study is to develop a method that allows clearly definition of productivity growth associated with the replacement of human labor by industrial robots. Another aim of the paper is how to model robotized and manual operated workstation in a computer simulation software. Analysis of the productivity and reliability of the hydraulic press workstation operated by the human operator or an industrial robot, are presented. Simulation models have been developed taking into account the availability and reliability of the machine, operator and robot. We apply OEE (Overall Equipment Effectiveness) indicator to present how availability and reliability parameters influence over performance of the workstation, in the longer time. Simplified financial analysis is presented considering different labor costs in EU countries.
The presented paper reports data from malacological and pedological studies carried out at sites representing diverse biotopes (beech wood, coniferous forest, and meadow) located 2 km away from the Dyckerhoff Cement Plant in Sitkówka-Nowiny in 1992 and in 2008–2009. The studies aimed to determine physicochemical properties of soils exposed to cement and limestone dust emission and to identify composition of snail communities inhabiting three different biotopes in relation to physicochemical properties of soils, and to grasp the dynamics of the alkalization-dependent changes in physicochemical properties of soils and their impact on the composition and ecological structure of malacofauna.