The analysis of cogging torque, torque ripple and total harmonic distortion of a permanent magnet (PM) flux-switching machine having separate excitation stators is presented in this study. Further, the effect of unbalanced magnetic force (UMF) on the rotor of this machine is also investigated. A comparison of the analysed machine having different rotor pole configurations is also given. The analysis shows that the largest cogging torque, torque ripple as well as total harmonic distortion (THD) are obtained in the four-rotor-pole machine while the least of THD and torque ripple effects is seen in the thirteen-rotor-pole machine. Furthermore, the evaluation of the radial magnetic force of the machines having an odd number of rotor poles shows that the investigated machine having a five-rotor-pole number exhibits the highest value of UMF, while the smallest amount of UMF is obtained in an eleven-rotor-pole machine. Similarly, it is observed that the machines having an even number of rotor poles exhibit a negligible amount of UMF compared to the ones of the odd number of rotor poles.
This study presents the dependence of the level and harmonic structure of the cogging torque in permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) to imperfections of permanent magnet (PM) dimensions and positions, which can not be avoided in massproduction. Slightly diverse dimensions and misplacements of PMs are introducing asymmetries in magnetic field distribution which cause additional harmonic components. A finite element method (FEM) and Fast Fourier transform (FFT) were used to calculate cogging torque harmonic components with regard to several combinations of PM assembly imperfections. It has been established and proved that unequal PMs cause magnetic asymmetries which give rise to additional cogging torque harmonic components and consequently increase the total cogging torque. It is also shown that in some particular combinations the influence of an individual PM imprecision could compensate with others due to different phase shifts which can result even in the decrease of cogging torque. Considering presented results it is possible to foresee which additional harmonic components will comprise the cogging torque of mass-produced PMSMs due to PM imperfections. In this way the designers are able to predetermine required manufacturing tolerances to keep the level of cogging torque in a admissible level. Simulation results were verified and confirmed by laboratory tests.
This paper considers a Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) machine prototype with six poles and 36 stator slots including a three phase double-layered distributed winding. Presented modifications of rotor construction are identified in order to achieve the best possible compromise of eddy-current losses and cogging torque characteristics. The permanent magnet (PM) eddy-current loss is relatively low compared with the iron loss; it may cause significant heating of the PMs due to the relatively poor heat dissipation from the rotor and it results in partial irreversible demagnetization. A reduction in both losses is achieved by magnet segmentation mounted on the rotor. Various numbers of magnet segmentation is analysed. The presented work concerns the computation of the no-load iron loss in the stator, rotor yoke and eddy-current loss in the magnets. It is shown that the construction of the rotor with segmented magnets can significantly reduce the PM loss (eddy-current loss). The eddy-current loss in PMs is caused by several machine features; the winding structure and large stator slot openings cause flux den sity variations that induce eddy-currents in the PMs. The effect of these changes on the BLDC motor design is examined in order to improve the machine performance. 3-D finite-element analysis (FEA) is used to investigate the electromagnetic behaviour of the BLDC motor.