This article first surveys the current, somewhat unproductive state of research into potential universals of translation. Then it considers in specific the “first translational response universal” (Malmkjær 2011), suggesting that it may be rooted in the cognitive mechanism of priming. Empirical evidence for this is next sought in the analysis of a set of 34 novice translations of the same short passage from Swedish into Polish, which are shown to exhibit the effects of priming to a considerable extent. Overall, the objective is to illustrate a possible way of investigating postulated translation universals: first identifying a cluster of cognitive mechanisms to motivate the universal, then determining the linguistic structures that are concrete manifestations of such mechanisms in languages meeting in translation. The proposed research procedure thus proceeds from a cognitive process to a detailed language structure, allowing for the examination of phenomena observed in the “third code” on the supra-cultural level.
Current fast development requires continuous improvement of employees’ skills and knowledge. Therefore, companies are looking for the best way for improving the employees’ qualifications and understanding of new concepts and tools which have to be implemented in manufacturing areas. One method employs gamification for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to present how gamification can increase the acquisition of knowledge concerning lean manufacturing concept implementation. Gamification is an active learning approach for people who will understand the subject easier by ‘feeling’ and ‘touching’ personally the analysed problems. The research utilized a questionnaire which assessed the game participants’ engagement level. The assessment focused specifically on the participants’ motivation, cognitive processing and social aspects. The participants were also examined before and after the game in order to assess the increase of their understanding of different lean manufacturing topics and tools. Five different games with different groups of participants were played. The results confirmed the hypothesis that gamification has a positive impact on the knowledge acquisition as well as on motivation, cognitive processing and social aspects. Finally, various insights on how to better design, conduct and utilize gamification in the similar technical context are presented.