The article discusses problems related to rules and regulations determining compensations for the mining usufruct of mineral deposits covered by the so called “state mining ownership”. Specific acts of law framing agreements on mining usufruct between government and mining enterprises were analyzed. Rules and algorithms applied to calculate an appropriate compensation are evaluated leading to several conclusions, including the one about lack of a direct legal grounding for them. Such a situation creates disputes and may be risky for all involved. It was also indicated that, in parallel, the State lets another class of mineral deposits, namely the ones owned as a result of real estate ownership and the related Civil Code regulations confirmed by the mining law. In such cases, a mining entrepreneur gets usufruct of a real estate, but only the one with mineral rights. Subsequently a comparison of the rules and algorithms established for determining compensation for mining usufruct and for usufruct of real-estates comprising rights for mineral assets was performed. Arguments for a far going harmonization between these two were put forward. This implies that a starting point for determining any compensation has to be a valuation of a relevant mineral deposit market value as opposed to any universal, however complicated, prescribed algebraic formula. Such a process is complicated and demands competences in geology, mining and finance. Consequently, regulations set in the Polish Mineral Asset Valuation Code shall be applied to both a running a valuation process and indicating competent persons. As a result, recommendations leading to correlate rules applied in both cases are put forward including the adoption of mineral asset valuation as a fundament to determine the level of compensation for the mining usufruct. The closing section contains recommendations regarding necessary changes in the legal framework.
Amendment to the Act on special rules of preparation and implementation of investment in public roads resulted in an accelerated mode of acquisition of land for the development of roads. The decision to authorize the execution of road investment issued on its basis has several effects, i.e. determines the location of a road, approves surveying division, approves construction design and also results in acquisition of a real property by virtue of law by the State Treasury or local government unit, among others. The conducted study revealed that over 3 years, in this mode, the city of Krakow has acquired 31 hectares of land intended for the implementation of road investments. Compensation is determined in separate proceedings based on an appraisal study estimating property value, often at a distant time after the loss of land by the owner. One reason for the lengthy compensation proceedings is challenging the proposed amount of compensation, unregulated legal status of the property as well as imprecise legislation. It is important to properly develop geodetic and legal documentation which accompanies the application for issuance of the decision and is also used in compensation proceedings.
In the paper, a feedforward linearization method for differential-pair operational transconductance ampliﬁer (OTA) is discussed. The proposed technique is developed using simple differential pair transconductors and linear reference resistor. The concept leads not only to very efficient linearization ofa transfer characteristic oft he OTA but also others the possibility of effﬀective phase compensation. Due to this, the circuit can be used in applications requiring precise phase response (e.g. ﬁlters). SPICE simulations show that for the circuit working with a ±1.25V power supply, total harmonic distortion (THD) at 0.8Vpp is less then 0.1% in comparison to 10.2% without linearization. Moreover, the input voltage range ofline ar operation is increased. Power consumption oft he overall circuit is 0.94mW. The 3rd order elliptic ﬁlter example has been designed and simulated. It turns out that the proposed compensation scheme signiﬁcantly improves the performance of the ﬁlter at higher frequencies.
Reliable estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is essential for vehicle stability and active safety control. This paper presents a novel longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation method for four-wheel independent-drive electric vehicles in which the cascaded multi-Kalman filters are applied. Also, a modified tire model is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability of sideslip angle estimation. In the design of longitudinal force observer, considering that the longitudinal force is the unknown input of the electric driving wheel model, an expanded electric driving wheel model is presented and the longitudinal force is obtained by a strong tracking filter. Based on the longitudinal force observer, taking into consideration uncertain interferences of the vehicle dynamic model, a sideslip angle estimation method is designed using the robust Kalman filter and a novel modified tire model is proposed to correct the original tire model using the estimation results of longitudinal tire forces. Simulations and experiments were carried out, and effectiveness of the proposed estimation method was verified.
With the increasing penetration rate of grid-connected renewable energy generation, the problem of grid voltage excursion becomes an important issue that needs to be solved urgently. As a new type of voltage regulation control method, electric spring (ES) can alleviate the fluctuations of renewable energy output effectively. In this paper, the background and basic principle of the electric spring are introduced firstly. Then, considering the influence of an electric spring on noncritical load voltage, noncritical loads are classified reasonably, and based on the electric spring phasor diagram, the control method to meet the noncritical load voltage constraint is proposed. This control method can meet the requirements of voltage excursions of different kinds of noncritical load, increase the connection capacity of the noncritical load and improve the voltage stabilization capacity of the electric spring. Finally, through the simulation case, the feasibility and validity of electric spring theory and the proposed control method are verified.
The absorption of sound in air represents one of the main problems of the scale model measurements. This absorption, especially at higher frequencies, is considerably greater than the value determined by the law of acoustical similarity between the full scale and the scale model. Different alternatives are applied for compensation of the excess air absorption including a numerical compensation. In this paper, a modified approach to numerical compensation is proposed. It is based on compensation of the sound decay only, and not background noise. As a consequence, there is no an increase of background noise in the compensated impulse response. The results obtained by the proposed procedure are compared to the corresponding ones obtained by the other procedures.
This paper presents a low-cost and smart measurement system to acquire and analyze mechanical motion parameters. The measurement system integrates several measuring nodes that include one or more triaxial accelerometers, a temperature sensor, a data acquisition unit and a wireless communication unit. Particular attention was dedicated to measurement system accuracy and compensation of measurement errors caused by power supply voltage variations, by temperature variations and by accelerometers’ misalignments. Mathematical relationships for error compensation were derived and software routines for measurement system configuration, data acquisition, data processing, and self-testing purposes were developed. The paper includes several simulation and experimental results obtained from an assembled prototype based on a crank-piston mechanism
Most receiving antenna arrays suffer from the mutual coupling problem between antenna elements, which can critically influence the performance of the array. In this work, a novel and accurate form of compensation matrix is applied to compensate the mutual coupling in a uniform linear array (ULA). This is achieved by applying a new method based on solving a boundary value problem for the whole ULA. In this method, both self and mutual impedances are exploited in an accurate characterization of mutual impedance matrix which results in a perfect mutual coupling compensation method, and hence a very accurate direction of arrival (DOA) estimation. In the new scheme, the compensation ma- trix is obtained by using the relationship between measured voltage and theoretical coupled voltage based on the MOM. Numerical results show that using DOA estimation algorithms to the decoupled voltage obtained by using this method leads to an excellent performance of DOA estimation with higher accuracy and resolution.
In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new method for optical frequency transfer over fibre. Instead of dual acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) as adopted in the traditional fibre phase noise compensation setup, here an active fibre phase noise compensation scheme with a single acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used. The configuration simplifies the equipment of the user end while maintaining a high-performance optical frequency transfer stability. We demonstrate an actively stabilized coherent transfer at an optical frequency of 193.55THz over 10-km spooled fibre, obtaining a relative frequency stability (Allan deviation) of 3:84 #2; 10��16/1 s and 4:08 #2; 10��18/104 s, which is improved by about 2#24;3 orders of magnitude in comparison with the one without any phase noise compensation that achieves a relative frequency stability of 1:81 #2; 10��14/1 s and 2:48 #2; 10��15/104 s.
The paper includes a summary of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Silesian University of Technology. The research work has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes the second part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to three-phase system symmetrisation as well as effective elimination of higher harmonics and substantial improvement of power quality by means of hybrid active power filters.
The paper includes a summary and a background of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at SilesianUniversity of Technology. The researchwork has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes a first part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to effective elimination of higher harmonics and reactive power compensation by means of parallel active power filters. The other problem discussed in this paper is related to this issue and it is very important from the economic point of view; it addresses optimal sizing and placement of active power filters in investigated power networks.
A practical method with high accuracy in generation and application of error values for calibration of current transformer test sets is described. A PC-controlled three-phase power source with a standard wattmeter is used for generating the nominal and error test currents while an electronically compensated current comparator is used to provide summation and subtraction of them, precisely. With this method, any ratio error and phase displacement values could be generated automatically and nominal and test currents could be grounded on the test set safely. Because of its high accurate ratio and phase error generating capability, any type of test set regardless of its operating principles could be calibrated.
The same speech sounds (phones) produced by different speakers can sometimes exhibit significant differences. Therefore, it is essential to use algorithms compensating these differences in ASR systems. Speaker clustering is an attractive solution to the compensation problem, as it does not require long utterances or high computational effort at the recognition stage. The report proposes a clustering method based solely on adaptation of UBM model weights. This solution has turned out to be effective even when using a very short utterance. The obtained improvement of frame recognition quality measured by means of frame error rate is over 5%. It is noteworthy that this improvement concerns all vowels, even though the clustering discussed in this report was based only on the phoneme a. This indicates a strong correlation between the articulation of different vowels, which is probably related to the size of the vocal tract.