Extremely intense development of civilization requires from foundry casting technologies very high quality and not expensive castings. In the foundries, there are many treatments that allow increasing of the final properties of produced castings such as refining, modification, heat treatment, etc. One of the methods of increasing the quality of the casting by removing inclusions from the liquid alloy is filtration. The use of ceramic-carbon foam filters in filtration process is still analysed phenomenon that allows improving the final properties of castings. A modern method of research, testing and synthesis of innovative chemical compositions allows improving the properties of such filters. In the paper the evaluation of application properties of developed ceramic-carbon bonded foam filters is presented. The quality of the foam filters is evaluated by Computer Tomography and foundry trials in pouring of liquid metal in test molds. Additionally computer simulations were made to visualize the flow characteristics in the foam filter. The analysed filters are the result of the research work of Foundry Research Institute and the Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Refractory Materials Department in Gliwice.
During four Polish Geodynamical Expeditions to West Antarctica between 1979 and 1991, seismic measurements were made along 21 deep refraction profiles in the Bransfield Strait and along the coastal area of Antarctic Peninsula using explosion sources. Recordings were made by 16 land stations and 8 ocean bottom seismometers. Good quality recordings were obtained up to about 250 km distance. This allowed a detailed study of the seismic wave field and crustal structure. Three-dimensional tomographic inversion was carried out using first arrivals from the complete data set including off-line recordings. As a result, we obtained a 3-D model of the P-wave velocity distribution in the study area. In the area adjacent to the Antarctic Peninsula coast, sedimentary cover of 0.2 to 3 km thickness was found, whereas in the shelf area and in the Bransfield Strait sedimentary basins with thickness from 5 to 8 km were observed. In the Bransfield Strait a high velocity body with Vp > 7.5 km/s was found at 12 km depth. The use of the off-line data allowed for determination of the horizontal extent of the body. The thickness of the crust varies from more than 35-40 km in the coastal area south of the Hero Fracture Zone to 30-35 km in the area of Bransfield Strait and South Shetland Islands and about 12 km in the Pacific Ocean NW of South Shetland Islands.
Authors paid attention to anatomy and clinical implications which are associated with the variations of the sphenoid sinus. We discuss also anatomical structure of the sphenoid bone implementing clinical application of this bone to diff erent invasive and miniinvasive procedures (i.e. FESS).
In this paper methods and their examination results for automatic segmentation and parameterization of vessels based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the retina are presented. We present three strategies for morphologic image processing of a fundus image reconstructed from OCT scans. A specificity of initial image processing for fundus reconstruction is analysed. Then, the parameterization step is performed based on the vessels segmented with the proposed algorithm. The influence of various methods on the vessel segmentation and fully automatic vessel measurement is analysed. Experiments were carried out with a set of 3D OCT scans obtained from 24 eyes (12 healthy volunteers) with the use of an Avanti RTvue OCT device. The results of automatic vessel segmentation were numerically compared with those prepared manually by the medical doctor experts.
The paper presents the development procedures for both virtual 3D-CAD and material models of fractured segments of human spine formulated with the use of computer tomography (CT) and rapid prototyping (RP) technique. The research is a part of the project within the framework of which a database is developed, comprising both 3D-CAD and material models of segments of thoracic-lumbar spine in which one vertebrae is subjected to compressive fracture for a selected type of clinical cases. The project is devoted to relocation and stabilisation procedures of fractured vertebrae made with the use of ligamentotaxis method. The paper presents models developed for five patients and, for comparison purposes, one for a normal spine. The RP material models have been built basing on the corresponding 3D-CAD ones with the use of fused deposition modelling (FDM) technology. 3D imaging of spine segments in terms of 3D-CAD and material models allows for the analysis of bone structures, classification of clinical cases and provides the surgeons with the data helpful in choosing the proper way of treatment. The application of the developed models to numerical and experimental simulations of relocation procedure of fractured vertebra is planned.
The main scientific goal of this work is the presentation of the role of selected geophysical methods (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT) to identify water escape zones from retention reservoirs. The paper proposes a methodology of geophysical investigations for the identification of water escape zones from a retention fresh water lake (low mineralised water). The study was performed in a lake reservoir in Upper Silesia. Since a number of years the administrators of the lake have observed a decreasing water level, a phenomenon that is not related to the exploitation of the object. The analysed retention lake has a maximal depth between 6 and 10 m, depending on the season. It is located on Triassic carbonate rocks of the Muschelkalk facies. Geophysical surveys included measurements on the water surface using ground penetration radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) methods. The measurements were performed from watercrafts made of non-metal materials. The prospection reached a depth of about 1 to 5 m below the reservoir bottom. Due to large difficulties of conducting investigations in the lake, a fragment with an area of about 5,300 m 2, where service activities and sealing works were already commenced, was selected for the geophysical survey. The scope of this work was: (1) field geophysical research (Ground-Penetrating Radar GPR and Electrical Resistivity Tomography ERT with geodesic service), (2) processing of the obtained geophysical research results, (3) modelling of GPR and ERT anomalies on a fractured water reservoir bottom, and (4) interpretation of the obtained results based on the modelled geophysical anomalies. The geophysical surveys allowed for distinguishing a zone with anomalous physical parameters in the area of the analysed part of the retention lake. ERT surveys have shown that the water escape zone from the reservoir was characterised by significantly decreased electrical resistivities. Diffraction hyperboles and a zone of wave attenuation were observed on the GPR images in the lake bottom within the water escape zone indicating cracks in the bottom of the water reservoir. The proposed methodology of geophysical surveys seems effective in solving untypical issues such as measurements on the water surface.
This paper presents the results of acoustic field distribution simulations for the 1024-element ultrasonic ring array intended for the diagnosis of female breast tissue with the use of ultrasound tomography. For the purpose of analysing data, all acoustic fields created by each elementary transducer were combined. The natural position of the focus inside the ultrasonic ring array was changed by altering activation time of individual transducers in sectors consisting of 32, 64, and 128 ultrasonic transducers. Manipulating the position of the focus inside the array will allow to concentrate the ultrasonic beam in a chosen location in the interior space of the ring array. The goal of this research is to receive the best possible quality of images of cross-sections of the female breast. The study also analysed the influence of the acoustic field distribution on the inclination of the beam. The results will enable to choose an optimal focus and an optimal number of activated transducers.
The purpose of this work is to examine the possibility of using multi-angle conventional ultrasound B-mode scanning in efficient 3-D imaging. In the paper, the volume of an object is reconstructed from vertical projections registered at fixed angular positions of the multi-element linear ultrasonic probe rotated in relation to the object submerged in water. The possible configurations are: vertical lateral, vertical top or vertical bottom. In the vertical lateral configuration, the ultrasonic probe acquires 2-D images of object’s vertical cross-sections, turning around its lateral surface. In the vertical top or bottom configuration, the ultrasonic probe acquires 2-D images of the object’s vertical cross-sections, turning on the horizontal plane over the top or under the bottom surface of the object. The method of recording 3-D volume of an object’s structure and reconstruction algorithm have been designed. Studies show the method in the vertical top or bottom configuration could be successfully applied to the effective 3-D visualisation of the structure of the female breast in vivo as the new complement ultrasonic imaging modality in the prototype of the developed ultrasound tomography scanner.