Temporal differentiation of the air thermal conditions in SW part of Spitsbergen has been presented in this paper. Daily meteorological records of the Polish Polar Station of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Hornsund have been used for the period of 1978—1986. Distributions of basic thermal indices based on mean, maximum, minimum air temperatures and minimum temperature at a ground surface have been given. Annual patterns of the above elements of various occurrence probabilities have been also presented and thermal periods have been distinguished.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
Ground temperature measurement results in main ecotopes of the Kaffiöyra coastal plain (Oscar II Land, northwestern Spitsbergen): sea beach, tundra and morainic plateau, are presented and discussed in the paper. The spatial distribution of thermal conditions is discussed with particular regard to temperature of the active surface and vertical gradients of temperature dependent on daytime and weather conditions.
The first step towards condition based maintenance of the milling plant is the implementation of online condition monitoring of the mill. The following paper presents and analyses methods of monitoring the key performance factors of a vertical spindle mill that is suited for implementation on older power stations, i.e. the quantity (mass flow rate) and quality (particle fineness) of the pulverised fuel produced by the mill. It is shown herein that the mill throughput can be monitored on-line using a simple mill energy balance that successfully predicts the coal throughput within 2.33% as compared to a calibrated coal feeder. A sensitivity analysis reveals that the coal moisture is a critical measurement for this method to be adopted as an on-line mass flow monitoring tool. A laser based particle size analyser tool was tested for use in the power plant environment as an online monitoring solution to measure pulverised fuel fineness. It was revealed that several factors around the set-up and operation of the instrument have an influence on the perceived results. Although the instrument showed good precision and repeatability of results, these factors must be taken into account in order to improve the accuracy of the reported results before the instrument can be commissioned as an on-line monitoring solution.
An investigation of cyanobacterial microflora in the northern, deglaciated part of James Ross Island in the NW part of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica , was conducted during the Antarctic summer season 2005-2006. Five main types of habitats with dominant cyanobacterial assemblages were analyzed (soils, seepages, streams, wetted rocky walls and lakes), and main ecological variables were measured (pH, temperature, intensity of global radiation, conductivity and nutrients), as a background for further ecological and ecophysiological studies. The definable traditional cyanobacterial morphospecies were identified.
This paper describes the spatial differentiation of topoclimatic conditions in the vicinity of the Arctowski Station (King George Island, Antarctica) during the summer season of the 2006/2007. The measurement stations were located in the Point Thomas oasis as well as on the Ecology Glacier and Warszawa Icefield. The paper analyses meteorological elements such as air temperature, air humidity (eight sites) and wind direction and velocity (three sites). Significant topoclimatic diversities resulting from denivelation, exposure, ground properties and local air circulation were recorded in the study area.
Soil-plant conditions in selected valleys typical for Bellsund Region are varying from hardly favourable (Skilvika), to favourable (Calypsostranda) and medium (Lyellstranda). Plant growth and development of a soil cover are favoured by grain size composition (loamy sands and light loams), quick warming-up of a soil, relative stability of a ground, location and shape of valleys, etc. Unfavourable soil-plant conditions result from too light or too heavy grain size composition, considerable dynamics of ground mechanical features and high compactness of a soil. Varying contents of carbonates and alkaline reaction (except for almost neutral reaction in organic horizons) were typical for the studied soils. Thickness of humus horizons as well as contents of organic C vary at the three studied sites. Significant is high concentration of easily available Ca and Mg, sometimes also of Na.
With reference to the situation experienced in several Polish collieries where the risk of occurrence of gas-geodynamic phenomena is increasing and decisions to start the mining activities need to take numerous constraints associated with previous mining into account, this paper addresses certain geo-mechanical aspects of longwall mining in the zones of excavation edge interactions giving rise to major changes in the conditions of the deposit and rock strata, as a consequence of previous mining operations in adjacent coalbeds. Starting from the analytical description of displacements and stresses in the proximity of longwall mining systems, the paper summarizes the results of model tests and investiga-tions of the influence that the excavation edge has on the behavior and structural continuity of a portion of the coal body in the coalbed beneath or above an old excavation. Based on selected nonlinear functions emulating the presence of edges in the rock strata, a comparative study is carried out by investigating two opposite directions of workface advance, from the gob area towards the coal body and from the coal body towards the gobs. The discussion of the results relies on the analysis of roof deformation and the concentration factor of the vertical stress component at the workface front.
In the Accession Treaty of 16 April 2003, Poland agreed to adopt euro as its national currency, but the date of this adoption was not specified. The financial crisis in several countries of the Eurozone, in response to the world financial crisis in 2008, reduced drastically the public support in Poland for the replacement of the zloty by the euro. This article has two objectives. One is to assess the net costs, economic and political, for Poland remaining long outside the Eurozone. In this assessment the analysis includes also two official reports by National Bank of Poland, the country’s central bank, published in 2009 and 2014. The other objective is to note and assess the reforms which have been undertaken by member states of the Eurozone in response to this crisis, in order to maintain and enhance financial stability and economic effectiveness of the rules adopted at the start of the Eurozone on 1 January 1999. The author suggests to consider and adopt additional reforms. Discussed is also the USA experience with its own monetary union, and the potential influence on policy developments in the EU of increasing global competitive pressures from China and India.
Air core solenoids, possibly single layer and with significant spacing between turns, are often used to ensure low stray capacitance, as they are used as part of many sensors and instruments. The problem of the correct estimation of the stray capacitance is relevant both during design and to validate measurement results; the expected value is so low to be influenced by any stray capacitance of the external measurement instrument. A simplified method is proposed that does not perturb the stray capacitance of the solenoid under test; the method is based on resonance with an external capacitor and on the use of a linear regression technique.
Wind turbines are nowadays one of the most promising energy sources. Every year, the amount of energy produced from the wind grows steadily. Investors demand turbine manufacturers to produce bigger, more efficient and robust units. These requirements resulted in fast development of condition-monitoring methods. However, significant sizes and varying operational conditions can make diagnostics of the wind turbines very challenging. The paper shows the case study of a wind turbine that had suffered a serious rolling element bearing (REB) fault. The authors compare several methods for early detection of symptoms of the failure. The paper compares standard methods based on spectral analysis and a number of novel methods based on narrowband envelope analysis, kurtosis and cyclostationarity approach. The very important problem of proper configuration of the methods is addressed as well. It is well known that every method requires setting of several parameters. In the industrial practice, configuration should be as standard and simple as possible. The paper discusses configuration parameters of investigated methods and their sensitivity to configuration uncertainties
A series of Al-5Ti-1B master alloys were obtained via fluoride salt process by holding them between 780°C and 880°C for 10-90 min. The influence of holding temperature and time during preparation on the microstructure and its refining performance were investigated by X-ray diffractometer, optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equ ipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results indicated both the morphology and the distribution of TiB2 and Al3Ti were seriously affected by holding conditions. Inadequate TiB2 particles were generated when holding time was short. However, Fe-containing impurity particles that aggregated along the matrix grain boundaries were found after the prolonged holding time. The refining and microhardness test results revealed that Al -5Ti-1B, the one held at 820°C for 30 min showed the optimum refining efficiency on Al-Cu alloy.
The support for the stable functioning of business entities with focus on their further development is impossible without an effective system of financial security, because any time there is a danger of implementing a variety of risks that can lead to the onset of the crisis. It should be noted that the implementation of measures to ensure financial security is most effective when they are applied long before the crisis - it makes business entities able to recognize early trends of crises and have time for preparedness. In the case when it comes to the global economic crisis, which cannot be prevented, timely measures to ensure financial security can minimize its negative effects, and if the crisis is expected at the level of the enterprise, it will be able to avoid it altogether. The study clarified the theoretical basis of ensuring the business entity financial security - namely, the definition of "financial security" and a list of its tasks, functions and principles. The existing problem of providing financial security are researched. A qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the financial condition of a business entity are showed. The research has established that the main problems of ensuring the financial security of business entity need to be addressed at the state level, but the early assessment of external and internal environment of economic units significantly reduces the risk of certain threats and thus increases financial security of business entities. The showed methods of assessing the financial situation can be used in practice of national business entities.
Mid-winter rapid rise of temperature in the vicinity of Arctowski Station, King George Island (West Antarctica) was studied in 1991. Depending on circumantarctic migration of cyclones, sudden drop in air pressure and foehn-like phenomenon intensified by local topography occurred. Two such events are described on May 13 and June 28, against meteorological conditions during autumn and winter. Extreme intensification of morphogenetic processes caused degradation of a snow cover, immense meltwater discharge, radical transformation of slopes, effective aeolian activity and dynamic modifications in a sea-shore zone.
Due to unfavorable factors, dangerous conditions occurred in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. This was the most serious incident of its kind since the 1980’s. Such a serious incident raised concern about the safety of the electric power system in the summer and led to the formulation of conclusions for the future. In this article, the author analyses the conditions, which caused that situation. Poland was experiencing a doubt in August 2015, which along with an extremely high maximum daily temperature created remarkably unfavorable conditions for power plants and decreased the capacity of overhead power lines. Such unfavorable metrological conditions occurred not only in Poland, but also in Central-Eastern and Western Europe. It is worth emphasizing that the safety of electric energy delivery was endangered only in Poland. The improper renovation and upkeep policies, as well as unplanned outages in power plants caused a significant decrease of available power in the National Electric Power System. Unscheduled flows between Germany and Poland ruled out the possibility of importing electric energy at such a critical time. The author presents the correlation between the maximum daily air temperature in the sweltering heat and an increase in the demand for electric energy. Overall, unfavorable conditions posed a threat in the delivery of electric energy in Poland. In this article, the author draws attention to the report from the Supreme Audit Office (Najwyższa Izba Kontroli – NIK) from 2014, which predicted such a dangerous situation. Unfortunately, that report remained unnoticed. The author formulated appropriate solutions in order to increase the safety of electric energy delivery in the summer and to prevent such occurrences in the future.
The paper presents the results of assessment studies of the time course for technical wear in masonry buildings located in the area of mining-induced ground deformations. By using fuzzy inference system (FIS) and the “if-then” rule, corresponding language labels describing actual damage recorded in structure components were translated into scalar outputs describing the degree of damage to the building. Adopting this approach made it possible to separate damage resulting from additional effects coming from mining-induced ground deformations and the natural wear and tear of masonry structure. By using statistical analysis an exponential function for the condition of building damage and the function of natural wear and tear were developed. Both phenomena were subject to studies as a function of time regarding the technical age of building structure. The results obtained were used to develop a model for the course of technical wear of traditionally constructed buildings used within mining areas. In the course of natural wear and tear buildings located in mining areas are additionally exposed to forced ground deformations. The increase of internal forces in structure components induced by those effects results in creating an additional stress factor and damage. The hairline cracks and cracks of building structure components take place when the intensity value of mining effects becomes higher than the component stress resistance and repeated effects result in the decrease of structure rigidity. The observations of building behaviour in mining areas show that the intensity of mining activity and the multiplicity of its effect play a substantial role in the course of technical wear of buildings. The studies show that the level of damage resulting from mining effects adds up to natural wear and tear of the building and impairs the global technical condition as compared to similar buildings used outside mining areas.
The paper reports on a long-wave infrared (cut-off wavelength ~ 9 μm) HgCdTe detector operating under nbiased condition and room temperature (300 K) for both short response time and high detectivity operation. The ptimal structure in terms of the response time and detectivity versus device architecture was shown. The response time of the long-wave (active layer Cd composition, xCd = 0.19) HgCdTe detector for 300 K was calculated at a level of τs ~ 1 ns for zero bias condition, while the detectivity − at a level of D* ~ 109 cmHz1/2/W assuming immersion. It was presented that parameters of the active layer and P+ barrier layer play a critical role in order to reach τs ≤ 1 ns. An extra series resistance related to the processing (RS+ in a range 5−10 Ω) increased the response time more than two times (τs ~ 2.3 ns).
The notion of the normal transfer matrix and the notion of the structure decomposition of normal transfer matrix for 2D general model are introduced. Necessary and suﬃcient conditions for the existence of the structure decomposition of normal transfer matrix are established. A procedure for computation of the structure decomposition is proposed and illustrated by the numerical example. It is shown that the impulse response matrix of the normal model is independent of the polynomial part of its structure decomposition.
In recent times, the concept of hard turning has gained awareness in metal cutting as it can apparently replace the traditional process cycle of turning, heat treating, and finish grinding for assembly of hard, wear-resistant steel parts. The major apprehension in hard turning is the tool vibration, which affects the surface finish of the work piece, has to be controlled and monitored. In order to control tool vibration in metal cutting, a magnetorheological fluid damper which has received great attention in suppressing tool vibration was developed and used. Also an attempt has been made in this study to monitor tool vibration using the skewness and kurtosis parameters of acoustic emission (AE) signal for the tool holder with and without magnetorheological damper. Cutting experiments were conducted to arrive at a set of operating parameters that can offer better damping characteristics to minimize tool vibration during turning of AISI4340 steel of 46 HRC using hard metal insert with sculptured rake face. From the results, it was observed that the presence of magnetorheological damper during hard turning reduces tool vibration and there exist a strong relationship between tool vibration and acoustic emission (AERMS) signals to monitor tool condition. This work provides momentous understanding on the usage of magnetorheological damper and AE sensor to control and monitor the tool condition during turning of hardened AISI4340 steel.
According to The European Commission’s regulation numbers 842/2006 and 517/2014, refrigerants whose Global Warming Potential ratio is more than 150, have been prohibited in mobile air conditioning (MAC) since January 2017. Therefore, the commonly used R-134 gas has been banned. The search for a new refrigerant, which grants all the required criteria, has begun. In accordance with new European standards, the gas should have environmentally friendly properties and should not be noxious to human life while operating. In this paper, two alternative substances, which can substitute the banned R134a, have been compared. This is synthetic R1234yf, which belongs to the HFO group, and carbon dioxide, which exists in the natural environment. The chemical build, physical and thermodynamic properties have been described. Scientific articles, which present and compare the technical results of testing both refrigerants, have been discussed. Comparison results, tools used and research methodology have been described in these articles. Alternative gases have been analyzed for their environmental impact and have been checked on the toxic, flammable, impact on ozone depletion and global warming. The threats to human life due to the use of the new refrigerants have been reviewed. The thesis also comprises an economical comparison between the two gases. A short review and conclusions have been presented at the end of the article.
In these remarks I make an attempt to understand and present the functioning of authorities in science. I do use in the first place the earlier claims which present this issue in a historical perspective. This allows to grasp the social process of emergence of the authorities as well the changing of their position in the way they are functioning. Especially the thoughts of Max Weber are being considered by my as useful in this matter. I do share his general thesis saying that even the greatest of scientific authorities – called by me in these remarks ”centennial” – couldn't occur and function without their social and cultural ”background”. This had led in large extent to the situation where these authorities fist played a significant role in the development of science and then went over to a more or less dignified ”retirement”. In this and other issues I present some of my own remarks and sugestions.
The article discusses changes in Polish regulations concerning assessment of the climate hazard in underground mines. Currently, the main empirical index representing the heat strain, used in qualification of the workplace to one of the climate hazard levels in Poland is the equivalent climate temperature. This simple heat index allows easy and quick assessment of the climate hazard. To a major extent, simple heat indices have simplifications and are developed for a specific working environments. Currently, the best methods used in evaluation of microclimate conditions in the workplace are those based on the theory of human thermal balance, where the physiological parameters characterising heat strain are body water loss and internal core temperature of the human body. The article describes the results of research on usage of equivalent climate temperature to heat strain evaluation in underground mining excavations. For this purpose, the numerical model of heat exchange between man and his environment was used, taken from PN-EN ISO 7933:2005. The research discussed in this paper has been carried out considering working conditions and clothing insulation in use in underground mines. The analyses performed in the study allowed formulation of conclusions concerning application of the equivalent climate temperature as a criterion of assessment of climate hazards in underground mines.