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Number of results: 14
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Abstract

The article presents the architectural heritage created as a part of the Central Industrial District in the context of the need for its preservation and protection. Presented are selected topics and problems associated with the current technical condition of both industrial and residential buildings. The analysis contain also the impact of modern conservation doctrines and their ability to preserve works of COP’s architecture with the specific conditions of ownership, poor awareness of users and owners, and a large shortage of historical planning sources.
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Abstract

Conservation of the Old Town Zamość began to realize almost a hundred years ago. Then the eminent preachers of culture in the early period. 20.year inter-made idea of restoring the prestige of the works of Polish culture. The idea of protecting national cultural heritage grew gradually until such time as the first scientific research, development of standards and principles of care and maintenance. Today Zamość was inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Many things made, much remains to be done.
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Abstract

Conservation of the Old Town Zamość began to realize almost a hundred years ago. Then the eminent preachers of culture in the early period. 20.year inter-made idea of restoring the prestige of the works of Polish culture. The idea of protecting national cultural heritage grew gradually until such time as the first scientific research, development of standards and principles of care and maintenance. Today Zamość was inscribed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage. Many things made, much remains to be done.
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Abstract

Rare and endemic plant species represent important components of plant biodiversity which require protection to ensure their sustainable conservation. Cerastium banaticum (Rochel) Heuff. is such an endemic and rare species from Romania, for which the genetic variability of two natural populations was studied by SSR markers. Shannon’s information index revealed low levels of genetic diversity in both populations (I = 0.296). As the first attempt in a conservation program a reproducible micropropagation protocol was established starting from seeds, followed by multiplication, rooting, and ex vitro acclimatization. Among the various plant growth regulators tested the highest multiplication coefficient was achieved on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (K) and 1 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). On this PGRs concentration a number of 26.6 shoots/individual explant with a mean length of 7.9 cm for new generated shoots was registered. The highest number of roots/individual initiated shoot was 2.6 and it was recorded on a culture medium with 0.5 mg L-1 2-isopentyl-adenine (2iP) and 0.1 mg L-1 NAA. The outdoor acclimatization was successfully performed in a specially designed rocky area in the ‘Alexandru Borza’ Botanical Garden, Cluj-Napoca (Romania).
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Abstract

The majority of publications and monographs present investigations which concern exclusively twophase flows and particulary dispersed flows. However, in the chemical and petrochemical industries as well as in refineries or bioengineering, besides the apparatuses of two-phase flows there is an extremely broad region of three-phase systems, where the third phase constitutes the catalyst in form of solid particles (Duduković et al., 2002; Martinez et al., 1999) in either fixed bed or slurry reactors. Therefore, the goal of this study is to develop macroscopic, averaged balances of mass, momentum and energy for systems with three-phase flow. Local instantaneous conservation equations are derived, which constitute the basis of the method applied, and are averaged by means of Euler’s volumetric averaging procedure. In order to obtain the final balance equations which define the averaged variables of the system, the weighted averaging connected with Reynolds decomposition is used. The derived conservation equations of the trickle-bed reactor (mass, momentum and energy balance) and especially the interphase effects appearing in these equations are discussed in detail.
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Abstract

This paper present the data for monitoring forest conditions and forest resource management by a local community adjacent to the Doi Laung Wildlife Sanctuary, Huaimai Sub-district, Song District, Phrae Province, Thailand. This study uses quantitative forest surveys, interviews, discussions, and descriptions of the historical context of public participation in forest management including a detailed assessment of field conditions. The findings of a forest resources inventory show that (1) from the three sampled areas, Doi Laung Wildlife Sanctuary has highest richness, followed by village #16 and #14, and (2) Huaikhon #16 implied the process of framework to maintain a healthy condition and response to community needs with collective management. The conceptual model assessment that links key group indicators and drivers is presented based on previously developed assessment models. The framework focuses on the best way to provide forest management, forest fire prevention, and firefighting as well as monitoring of Check-dam construction and other activities that support the recovery of the forest community. This paper demonstrates the general of an environmental assessment framework to applying organize environmental information to facilitate policy decision making for the sustainable development.
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Abstract

Though current conservation policy in Poland refl ects world trends and approaches to action, compliance with all of its assumptions would entail the Polish authorities remodelling both the system and the methods by which natural resources are managed. On the one hand this requires a change of approach to the management of natural resources from the traditional, purely nature-related one, to a more modern inter-disciplinary one that takes in social and economic conditioning. On the other hand, a system need to be put in place to allow these ideas to be introduced in practice. The work described here deals with the participation of different stakeholder groups in nature management, with this regarded as a method of increasing the latter’s effi ciency. The many examples (of good practice) presented by the author well illustrate the wisdom of the approach, which often seems to achieve success where it is attempted.
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Abstract

Biodiversity conservation cannot operate in Central Eastern European countries without a well-established monitoring system, that is dependent on the citizen scientists input. Here we analyse, based on a Polish case: (1) The contribution of NGOs to the national nature monitoring scheme and their collaboration with governmental and scientific institutions and (2) the motivation of citizen scientists to volunteer for NGOs’ monitoring activities. The study comprises a focus group interview, 30 in-depth interviews with coordinators, citizen scientists, experts and a 23 days long participant observation of a model NGO. We have assessed the monitoring input of NGOs as being a contributory factor influencing the biodiversity conservation effectiveness. The cooperation between governmental, scientific institutions and NGOs exists, but is dependent on national funding. Although NGOs highlight the lack of coherence in monitoring methodology, they are willing to join the biodiversity monitoring, especially at the European Ecological Network – Natura 2000 sites. On the other hand the trust concerning cooperation with citizen scientists is limited. However, despite this, they still turned out to be trustworthy partners. The most effective way to maintain cooperation with citizen scientists is to create a bond in a group and to provide them with the opportunity to develop their passion for nature. Our findings have shed light on the growing importance of citizen scientists in biodiversity governance, providing recommendations for development of the effective monitoring schemes based on the volunteer work of citizen scientists.
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Abstract

The book focuses on the issue of nature protection in urban areas. The subject matter of the research was the formal and legal conditions of protected areas in cities. The analysis regarded Polish and global solutions in the scope of the nature protection categories in urban areas, objectives of creating urban protected areas and instruments for fulfi lling the aims of protection in the spatial aspect. The research on globally applied solutions in the scope of nature protection was based on the analysis of source literature and legal acts on nature conservation in cities situated in various countries. As a result, four major types of urban protected areas were distinguished in 80 different cities. The research enabled formulating major characteristics of urban protected areas. Those were, in particular: the integrated approach to the protection of natural and cultural resources and equal treatment of the natural and social objectives of protection. This was the basis for a critical analysis of domestic solutions in the subject matter. The research on formal and legal conditions for the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities was conducted in the administrative borders of voivodeship capitals. The research included 18 cities in total. The analysis concerned basic documents related to the widely understood management of protected areas, including, in particular: legal acts establishing individual protected areas and protected areas management plans, as well as the studies of conditions and directions for the spatial development of communes and local spatial development plans. The research work regarded spatial forms of nature protection, including: national parks, natural reserves, regional parks, protected landscape areas, Natura 2000 areas, ecological sites, documentation sites and nature-landscape complexes. The research included 229 protected areas in total. For the abovementioned protected areas, the following aspects were analyzed: subject matter and objectives of their protection, premises for creating their functional and spatial infrastructure and methods for their development, as well as the scope of provisions in urban spatial planning documents in the abovementioned respect. The research enabled identifying the key problems in the functioning of protected areas in Polish cities, including: • small stability of regulations on nature protection and consequential lack of continuity in the protection of naturally valuable areas, • noticeable tendency to loosen the regulations in the subjected scope, which leads to marginalizing the issues of nature protection while planning urban development. • no coordination of actions performed by various stakeholders in regard to the protected areas, • failure to adjust nature protection objectives to conditions resulting from the location in urban areas, • lack of efficient tools to fulfi ll the nature protection objectives in the spatial aspect. Based on the identifi ed models of environmental protection in urban areas, premises were formulated with regard to the new model for environmental protection in Polish cities. Three scenarios were proposed with regard to potential changes: modification-oriented, reorganization-oriented and radical. The modification-oriented scenario includes: • adding the social aspect to the objectives of nature protection in cities, • extending the scope of the nature conservation act of new nature protection categories appropriate for urban areas, • increasing the importance of the study of conditions and directions for the spatial development and protection plans with regard to the planning permission. Reorganization-oriented scenario provides for: • verifying the objectives of nature protection, • introducing the obligation to prepare management plans for all protected areas in cities, • introducing the obligation to update and prepare development plans for areas were nature conservation areas were established. The radical scenario includes: • introducing new categories of nature protection in urban areas, including categories that ensure preserving and shaping the connectivity of protected area, • exposing ecosystem services as the major motif of nature protection in cities, • introducing new instruments for managing protected areas in cities. Applying one of the abovementioned scenarios may signifi cantly improve the efficiency of natural protection in cities. It may also contribute to introducing a more innovative model for urban nature protection. Each scenarios will entail the implementation of quite significant legislative changes, either in the scope of nature protection and spatial planning.
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Abstract

An efficient micropropagation system for Taraxacum pieninicum using seedling explants germinated in vitro is described. Shoot tips and fragments of cotyledons, hypocotyls and roots were isolated from several-day-old seedlings. The highest response, 100% frequency with 12.3 axillary shoots/explant, was from shoot tips on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 BA and 0.05 mg L-1 NAA. In subsequent subcultures the number of shoots was significantly higher on all explants cultured on medium containing 0.25 and 0.5 mg L-1 BA, and the multiplication rate was highest (20 shoots/explant) in the 4th passage. Shoots rooted on MS and 1/2 MS medium; the highest rooting frequency was 90% and the highest number of roots 2.7/shoot. Rooted plants showed 96.2% survival in sterile soil:sand, and 100% survival in hydroponic culture. Regenerated plants flowered in the second year after acclimatization and yielded viable seeds. This protocol for obtaining complete plants through micropropagation may prove useful for conservation of the genetic resources of this and other endangered species
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Abstract

Selected Legal Regulations and Cultural Aspects of Urban Development. Nowadays, the issue of urban development belongs to key elements of development in general. Urban development is a multifaceted phenomenon (covering economic, social, administrative, promotional, ecological and a number of other aspects). They are too numerous to discuss them in one short article. For this reason this paper is dedicated only to the phenomena regulated by law: physical planning, suburbanization (initially called urban sprawl), monument conservation and – additionally – culture (as a factor influencing the legal regulations). The key hypothesis is that developers are not the only ones to blame for the way the country looks. This hypothesis has generally been corroborated.
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