An electric power steering system (EPS) is a new type of steering system developed after a mechanical hydraulic power system (MHPS) and electric-hydraulic power steering system (EHPS). In order to coordinate and solve the portability and sensitivity of the steering system optimally, taking an induction power steering system as the research object, the control algorithm of induction motor control under the EPS is studied in this paper. In order to eliminate the feed-forward performance degradation caused by the change of feed-forward parameters, an on-line identification algorithm of feed-forward parameters is proposed. It can improve the control performance of online identification among three feed-forward parameters in the T-axle motor, it improves on the robustness of feed-forward control performance, at the same time it also gives simulation and test results. This method can improve the control performance of the three feed-forward parameter online identification of the T-axis motor and improve the robustness of feed-forward control performance. At the same time, simulation and test results are given. The simulation results show that the algorithm can significantly improve the response speed and control accuracy of EPS system control.
High voltage direct current (HVDC) emergency control can significantly improve the transient stability of an AC/DC interconnected power grid, and is an important measure to reduce the amount of generator and load shedding when the system fails. For the AC/DC interconnected power grid, according to the location of failure, disturbances can be classified into two categories: 1) interconnected system tie-line faults, which will cause the power unbalance at both ends of the AC system, as a result of the generator rotor acceleration at the sending-end grid and the generator rotor deceleration at the receiving-end grid; 2) AC system internal faults, due to the isolation effect of the DC system, only the rotor of the generator in the disturbed area changes, which has little impact on the other end of the grid. In view of the above two different locations of disturbance, auxiliary power and frequency combination control as well as a switch strategy, are proposed in this paper. A four-machine two-area transmission system and a multi-machine AC/DC parallel transmission system were built on the PSCAD platform. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.
The uncontrolled power flow in the AC power system caused by renewable energy sources (restless sources, distributed energy sources), dynamic loads, etc., is one of many causes of voltage perturbation, along with others, such as switching effects, faults, and adverse weather conditions. This paper presents a three-phase voltage and power flow controller, based on direct PWM AC/AC converters. The proposed solution is intended to protect sensitive loads against voltage fluctuation and problems with power flow control in an AC power system. In comparison to other solutions, such as DVR, UPFC, the presented solution is based on bipolar matrix choppers and operates without a DC energy storage unit or DC link. The proposed solution is able to compensate 50% voltage sags, in the case of three-phase symmetrical voltage perturbation, and single phase voltage interruptions. Additionally, by means of a voltage phase control with a range of #6;60◦ in each phase, it is possible to control the power flow in an AC power system. The paper presents an operational description, a theoretical analysis based on the averaged state space method and four terminal descriptions, and the experimental test results from a 1 kVA laboratory model operating under active load.
The paper presents a concept of a control system for a high-frequency three-phase PWM grid-tied converter (3x400 V / 50 Hz) that performs functions of a 10-kW DC power supply with voltage range of 600÷800 V and of a reactive power compensator. Simulation tests (in PLECS) allowed proper selection of semiconductor switches between fast IGBTs and silicon carbide MOSFETs. As the main criterion minimum amount of power losses in semiconductor devices was adopted. Switching frequency of at least 40 kHz was used with the aim of minimizing size of passive filters (chokes, capacitors) both on the AC side and on the DC side. Simulation results have been confirmed in experimental studies of the PWM converter, the power factor of which (inductive and capacitive) could be regulated in range from 0.7 to 1.0 with THDi of line currents below 5% and energy efficiency of approximately 98.5%. The control system was implemented in Texas Instruments TMS320F28377S microcontroller.
Fast and accurate grid signal frequency estimation is a very important issue in the control of renewable energy systems. Important factors that influence the estimation accuracy include the A/D converter parameters in the inverter control system. This paper presents the influence of the number of A/D converter bits b, the phase shift of the grid signal relative to the time window, the width of the time window relative to the grid signal period (expressed as a cycle in range (CiR) parameter) and the number of N samples obtained in this window with the A/D converter on the developed estimation method results. An increase in the number b by 8 decreases the estimation error by approximately 256 times. The largest estimation error occurs when the signal module maximum is in the time window center (for small values of CiR) or when the signal value is zero in the time window center (for large values of CiR). In practical applications, the dominant component of the frequency estimation error is the error caused by the quantization noise, and its range is from approximately 8×10-10 to 6×10-4.
Quality of energy produced in renewable energy systems has to be at the high level specified by respective standards and directives. One of the most important factors affecting quality is the estimation accuracy of grid signal parameters. This paper presents a method of a very fast and accurate amplitude and phase grid signal estimation using the Fast Fourier Transform procedure and maximum decay side-lobes windows. The most important features of the method are elimination of the impact associated with the conjugate’s component on the results and its straightforward implementation. Moreover, the measurement time is very short ‒ even far less than one period of the grid signal. The influence of harmonics on the results is reduced by using a bandpass pre-filter. Even using a 40 dB FIR pre-filter for the grid signal with THD ≈ 38%, SNR ≈ 53 dB and a 20‒30% slow decay exponential drift the maximum estimation errors in a real-time DSP system for 512 samples are approximately 1% for the amplitude and approximately 8.5・10‒2 rad for the phase, respectively. The errors are smaller by several orders of magnitude with using more accurate pre-filters.
In the complex RLC network, apart from the currents flows arising from the normal laws of Kirchhoff, other distributions of current, resulting from certain optimization criteria, may also be received. This paper is the development of research on distribution that meets the condition of the minimum energy losses within the network called energy-optimal distribution. Optimal distribution is not reachable itself, but in order to trigger it off, it is necessary to introduce the control system in current-dependent voltage sources vector, entered into a mesh set of a complex RLC network. For energy-optimal controlling, to obtain the control operator, the inversion of R(s) operator is required. It is the matrix operator and the dispersive operator (it depends on frequency). Inversion of such operators is inconvenient because it is algorithmically complicated. To avoid this the operator R(s) is replaced by the R’ operator which is a matrix, but non-dispersive one (it does not depend on s). This type of control is called the suboptimal control. Therefore, it is important to make appropriate selection of the R’ operator and hence the suboptimal control. This article shows how to implement such control through the use of matrix operators of multiple differentiation or integration. The key aspect is the distribution of a single rational function H(s) in a series of ‘s’ or ‘s⁻¹’. The paper presents a new way of developing a given, stable rational transmittance with real coefficients in power series of ‘s/s⁻¹՚. The formulas to determine values of series coefficients (with ‘s/s⁻¹’) have been shown and the conditions for convergence of differential/integral operators given as series of ‘s/s⁻¹’ have been defined.