The author discusses the problem of reference of (nominal, verbal, adjectival groups, and adverbial) sentence components realized within coordinate relationships. Initially, the author refers to the theory of compactness as an explanation of the processes of generating coordinate constructions in the structure of simple sentences. There are evidences in favor of the thesis that the compactness theory does not explain coordination in semantic aspect. This applies not only to the structure with the main predicate with plural distribution (valence), but also to the entire range of coordination. The author distinguishes two types of references of coordinated phrases (in structure of a simple sentence): a distributional and a collective one. The constructional and semantic peculiarities of the expressions of both types have been described in relation to the contemporary Polish and Russian language.
This paper presents the results of computer simulations carried out to determine coordination numbers for a system of parallel cylindrical fibres distributed at random in a circular matrix according to twodimensional pattern created by random sequential addition scheme. Two different methods to calculate coordination number were utilized and compared. The first method was based on integration of pair distribution function. The second method was the modified sequential analysis. The calculations following from ensemble average approach revealed that these two methods give very close results for the same neighbourhood area irrespective of the wide range of radii used for calculation.
The EU member states have implemented excise duties on fuel and electricity according to the EU Energy Tax Directive. The purpose of these measures is to motivate a reduction in energy consumption by internalizing external costs of energy. The taxes on energy have success in inciting energy savings. Simultaneously, the price levels of energy in the EU member states have increased to levels significantly higher compared to other countries in the region and the world. The price increase is the result of a cumulative effect of excise duties and other taxes and mechanisms including feed-in tariffs and quota policies. While the Energy Tax Directive gives the member states a level of freedom in setting the exact duty rates, the minimal rates enforced on all member states are relatively high. The policy intends to limit competition between the states on low energy prices and arbitrage trading between countries. We examine the purchasing power for energy products relative to the per capita GDP for a wide set of countries countries within the EU and in the rest of the world. We can identify several groups or clusters of countries based on their GDP per capita and energy prices. The new member states of the EU face a unique combination of low or moderate GDP per capita and very high energy prices. Their relative purchasing power for energy is degraded to levels comparable or lower than the purchasing power in developing countries with significantly lower GDP per capita and underdeveloped energy infrastructure. The calibration of energy taxation in the EU at high price levels suitable for Western European economies with high per capita GDP is leading to strong negative social effects and increasing poverty in Eastern European member states. The current implementation of these policies does not recognize to a sufficient extent income levels, regional social inequalities, and the low price elasticity of demand for energy.
Transverse effective thermal conductivity of the random unidirectional fibre-reinforced composite was studied. The geometry was circular with random patterns formed using random sequential addition method. Composite geometries for different volume fraction and fibre radii were generated and their effective thermal conductivities (ETC) were calculated. Influence of fibre-matrix conductivity ratio on composite ETC was investigated for high and low values. Patterns were described by a set of coordination numbers (CN) and correlations between ETC and CN were constructed. The correlations were compared with available formulae presented in literature. Additionally, symmetry of the conductivity tensor for the studied geometries of fibres was analysed.
In this article the author attempts to define the specificity of the tools for development planning at the local level in the context of: institutional resources of community (gmina) (and means of strengthening them), models of public management as well as the specifics of the Polish public administration system and its ensuing dysfunctions. These dysfunctions rely mainly on a limited awareness of the need to create mechanisms of coordination for: socio-economics, spatial and financial planning. These factors contribute to a decrease in the effectiveness of measures for the development of communities. Socio-economic planning answers the question: WHAT we want to do in the community; spatial planning: WHERE we would like to carry out certain activities, and financial planning: HOW MUCH it will cost and where the financial sources are. We can see the theoretical causal links between the areas of development planning, therefore, the main purpose of this article is to offer conceptual framework and a relevant case study of Kraków serving as its validation attempt.
Orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) in Long Term Evolution (LTE) can effectively eliminate intra-cell interferences between the subcarriers in a single serving cell. But, there is more critical issue that, OFDMA cannot accomplish to decrease the inter-cell interference. In our proposed method, we aimed to increase signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) by dividing the cells as cell center and cell edge. While decreasing the interference between cells, we also aimed to increase overall system throughput. For this reason, we proposed a dynamic resource allocation technique that is called Experience-Based Dynamic Soft Frequency Reuse (EBDSFR). We compared our proposed scheme with different resource allocation schemes that are Dynamic Inter-cellular Bandwidth Fair Sharing FFR (FFRDIBFS) and Dynamic Inter-cellular Bandwidth Fair Sharing Reuse-3 (Reuse3DIBFS). Simulation results indicate that, proposed EBDSFR benefits from overall cell throughput and obtains higher user fairness than the reference schemes.
The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.