The aim of the present paper is to discuss metaphorical constructions, based on figurative uses of words, in informal Polish in the field of computers and the Internet. The study is based on the author’s own corpus, compiled on the basis of short informal texts (entries, posts) written on 32 selected Internet forums. Altogether, the corpus consists of 1,541,449 words. The paper, as the title suggests, focuses on one metaphorical formula, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE BUILDINGS. The metaphors which can be subsumed under this heading belong to the most frequent in the corpus (alongside a different type, i.e. COMPUTERS ARE HUMANS). They are discussed within the cognitive framework, as introduced by Lakoff and Johnson (1980). Some attention will also be devoted to the possible infl uence of English upon Polish metaphorical constructions used in the area of computers and the Internet.
The paper deals with the problem of defi nite article in the Gothic Bible. More specifically, it concentrates on the differences and similarities of use between the target language, i.e. Gothic, and the source language, i.e. Greek, with special attention being paid to the case of the article – nominative, genitive, dative or accusative. It is part of a larger endeavor aiming at the analysis of the whole Gothic Bible in this respect. This time the Gospel of John is taken into consideration, following an earlier study which concentrated on the Gospel of Matthew. In the paper it will not only be observed how frequently Gothic omits the definite article in places where Greek uses it in the Gospel of John, but also in what way the cases of the definite article vary in both languages due to their grammatical specificities.
Badając myśl Henryka Elzenberga, należałoby odróżniać pisma wydane za jego życia przez niego samego (nazywam je corpus) oraz rozszerzenie tego zespołu o wszelkiego rodzaju inedita i pisma rozproszone (proponuję nazwę opus). Corpus zostało świadomie opracowane przez Henryka Elzenberga jako jego autoprezentacja. Z pewnością zaliczyć tu można trzy książki: Kłopot z istnieniem (1963), Wartość i człowiek (1966) oraz Próby kontaktu (1966). Myślę, że dodatkowo trzeba tu włączyć także trzy naukowe monografie Elzenberga z czasów jego młodości: Le sentiment religieux chez Leconte de Lisle (1909), Podstawy metafizyki Leibniza (1917), Marek Aureliusz (1922). Pozostała zawartość dorobku Elzenberga stanowi jego pełne opus („dzieło”). Jest ona nieuporządkowana i szkicowa, ale cenna jako materiał do rekonstrukcji pełnego światopoglądu Elzenberga (jego „systemu”).
In building speech recognition based applications, robustness to different noisy background condition is an important challenge. In this paper bimodal approach is proposed to improve the robustness of Hindi speech recognition system. Also an importance of different types of visual features is studied for audio visual automatic speech recognition (AVASR) system under diverse noisy audio conditions. Four sets of visual feature based on Two-Dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform feature (2D-DCT), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by DCT (2D-DWT- DCT) and Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform followed by PCA (2D-DWT-PCA) are reported. The audio features are extracted using Mel Frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCC) followed by static and dynamic feature. Overall, 48 features, i.e. 39 audio features and 9 visual features are used for measuring the performance of the AVASR system. Also, the performance of the AVASR using noisy speech signal generated by using NOISEX database is evaluated for different Signal to Noise ratio (SNR: 30 dB to −10 dB) using Aligarh Muslim University Audio Visual (AMUAV) Hindi corpus. AMUAV corpus is Hindi continuous speech high quality audio visual databases of Hindi sentences spoken by different subjects.
German academic language contains far more phrasemes than it used to be assumed. Apart from specialist expressions, there are many collocations, idioms and pragmatic phrasemes, which perform a number of textual functions. Scientific discourse has received an increased interest lately, however, no study of body-part phrasemes in academic language has been conducted. This paper presents an analysis of occurrence of phrasemes with the component “eye” in a specially created corpus of German academic texts in such branches as: linguistics, literary studies, foreign language teaching, and medicine. The paper approaches the following questions: Are such phrasemes used in scientifi c discourse and, if so, in which branches of science? What are the purposes of their use? Which phrasemes are favoured in all the analysed branches?
The aim of the paper is to explore metaphorical expressions used in informal Polish in the area of computers and the Internet. The study is based on a corpus, compiled and analyzed by the present author; the corpus consists of short informal texts (entries) taken from Polish Internet message boards devoted to computers and the Internet. Altogether, the corpus comprises around 1,500,000 words. The metaphors found in the corpus will be discussed within the cognitive framework. Special attention will be devoted to one of the most frequent conceptual metaphors found in the corpus, namely COMPUTERS ARE HUMANS, or, to be more precise, BADLY WORKING COMPUTER IS A SICK PERSON. Some place will also be devoted to the infl uence of English on metaphorical expressions (in the domain of computers and the Internet) in Polish.
The major underlying principle of the present paper is that, in opposition to the viewpoint of emotions as discrete entities, emotions are represented as clusters in conceptual space. The graded structure and fuzzy boundaries inherent in the prototype-periphery nature of these clusters dictate that the meaning of a specific emotion is governed by both inter- and intra-cluster relationships and their interactions. In addition to these relationships and interactions the paper examines both external and internal affects to compare and contrast the FEAR, COMPASSION, LOVE/JOY, and PRIDE clusters in British English and Polish. The three specific methods employed to analyze these are the GRID instrument, an online emotions sorting task, and a corpus-based cognitive linguistic methodology.
The Corpus Ignatianum, usually included in the works of the Apostolic Fathers, is made up of seven letters in koiné Greek, probably written by Saint Ignatius of Antioch. These texts, which have a complicated literary history, are very interesting and original from a linguistic and stylistic point of view. A lexical analysis of the Corpus Ignatianum, in particular, allows identifying first of all a noteworthy lexical creativity. There are indeed some hapax, unusual words and neologisms, which are often compound words. Moreover, in these texts some words already used in classical Greek are first attested in Christian literature. There are also some latinisms. Another noteworthy lexical characteristic of the Corpus Ignatianum is the presence of words and metaphors which are typical of Hellenistic philosophy, especially of Stoicism, and which are present also in Christian literature.