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Abstract

The aim of the paper is to validate the use of measurement methods in the study of GFRP joints. A number of tests were carried out by means of a tensile machine. The studies were concerned with rivet connection of composite materials. One performed two series of tests for two different forces and two fibre orientations. Using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC), strain maps in the test samples were defined. The results obtained with both methods were analysed and compared. The destructive force was analysed and, with the use of a strain gauge, the clamping force in a plane parallel to the annihilated sample was estimated. Destruction processes were evaluated and models of destruction were made for this type of materials taking into account their connections, such as riveting.
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Abstract

In the paper, the authors discuss the construction of a model of an exemplary urban layout. Numerical simulation has been performed by means of a commercial software Fluent using two different turbulence models: the popular k-ε realizable one, and the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM), which is still being developed. The former is a 2-equations model, while the latter – is a RSM model – that consists of 7 equations. The studies have shown that, in this specific case, a more complex model of turbulence is not necessary. The results obtained with this model are not more accurate than the ones obtained using the RKE model. The model, scale 1:400, was tested in a wind tunnel. The pressure measurement near buildings, oil visualization and scour technique were undertaken and described accordingly. Measurements gave the quantitative and qualitative information describing the nature of the flow. Finally, the data were compared with the results of the experiments performed. The pressure coefficients resulting from the experiment were compared with the coefficients obtained from the numerical simulation. At the same time velocity maps and streamlines obtained from the calculations were combined with the results of the oil visualisation and scour technique.
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