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Number of results: 4
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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the levels of milk cell total protein (TP), reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), total glutathione (tGSH), activities of glucose-6-phos- phate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in subclinical mastitic cows. Milk from each udder was collected and grouped by the California Mastitis Test. Then, a somatic cell count (SCC) was performed, and the groups were re-scored as control (5–87 × 103 cells), 1st group (154–381 × 103 cells), 2nd group (418–851 × 103 cells), 3rd group (914–1958 × 103 cells), and 4th group (2275–8528 × 103 cells). Milk cell TP, NADPH, tGSH levels, G6PD, and GPx ac- tivities were assessed. Microbiological diagnosis and aerobic mesophyle general organism (AMG, cfu/g) were also conducted. In mastitic milk, TP, NADPH, and tGSH levels, and G6PD and GPx activities were significantly reduced per cell (in samples of 106 cells). In addition, milk SCC was positively correlated with AMG (r=0.561, p<0.001), NADPH (r=0.380, p<0.01), TP (r=0.347, p<0.01) and G6PD (r=0.540, p<0.001). There was also positive correlation between NADPH (r=0.428, p<0.01), TP (r=0.638, p<0.001) and AMG. NADPH was positively correlated with TP (r=0.239, p<0.05), GPx (r=0.265, p<0.05) and G6PD (r=0.248, p=0.056). Total protein was positively correlated with tGSH (r=0.354, p<0.01) and G6PD (r=0.643, p<0.001). There was a negative correlation between tGSH and GPx activity (r=-0.306, p<0.05). The microbiological analysis showed the following ratio of pathogens: Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci 66.6%, Streptococcus spp 9.5%, Bacillus spp 9.5%, yeast 4.8%, and mixed infections 9.5%. As a conclusion, when evaluating the enzyme and oxidative stress parameters in milk, it is more suitable to assign values based on cell count rather than ml of milk. The linear correlation between the SCC and AMG, milk cell NADPH, TP and G6PD suggests that these parameters could be used as markers of mastitis.
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Abstract

The paper presents microbiological characteristic of sewage sludge composted in controlled conditions together with biowastes (wheat, maize and rapeseed straw, sawdust and refined glycerol). An experiment was carried out in which the material was mixed at appropriate weight proportions and then placed in bioreactor chambers of constant air flow (4 lźmin-1). The performed composting process aimed at determining the developmental dynamics of heterotrophic bacteria, molds, actinomycetes as well as bacteria from Salmonella genus and Enterobacteriaceae family. Microbiological analyses were performed on selective substrates using Koch's plate method. Moreover, using the floatation method, the presence of live eggs of ATT (Ascaris spp., Trichuris spp., Toxocara spp.) intestinal parasites was assessed and levels of dehydrogenase activity were determined using 1% triphenylotetrazole chloride as a substrate. It was concluded, on the basis of the obtained research results, that the composting process reduced bacterial counts of heterotrophic bacteria, molds and the activity of dehydrogenases activity in all experimental treatments. On the other hand, no reduction was observed in quantities of actinomycetes in the composted materials whose changes in numbers were found to correlate positively most strongly with levels of dehydrogenases activity. In addition, it was found that changes in numbers of the analysed groups of microorganisms depended, primarily, on the pH value and concentrations of ammonia released from the composted materials. Furthermore, the obtained research results also revealed that the sewage sludge used in the experiment did not contain Salmonella spp. bacteria and live eggs of ATT intestinal parasites, and that the composting process reduced completely numbers of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family in all compost treatments. The obtained composts fulfilled all sanitary standards complying with the requirements issued by the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development (2008) as well as with the EU regulation (EC) No. 185/2007 from February 2007 changing EEC regulations No. 809/2003 and No. 810/2003 connected with the extension of the period of transitional requirements for composting and biogas plants as provided by the EU regulation No. 1774/2002 of the European Parliament and Council.
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Abstract

The paper presents the research results for the soils sampled from the area located in the eastern part of the Chodzieskie Lakes, between the Middle Noteć River Valley and the Wełna River Valley, the right tributary of the Warta River. The research involved 7 soil samples from the surface horizons, allocated to the cultivation of various plant species (cereals and vegetable crops). The following were determined in the soil material: the content of phytoavailable forms of selected heavy metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe and Mn, active and available to plants phosphorus against the activity of selected oxydo-reduction and hydrolytic enzymes. The soil under the vegetable crops showed a very high richness in phosphorus available to plants, which must have been related to an intensive fertilisation. There were identified relatively low contents of the available forms of the heavy metals investigated, the fact that points to their natural content in soil, which triggered the inhibition of neither the oxydo-reduction nor hydrolytic enzymes.
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