This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of biosurfactants - saponin, tannin and rhamnolipids JBR 515 and 425, for the removal of cadmium, zinc and copper from activated sludge immobilized in 1.5% sodium alginate with 0.5% polyvinyl alcohol. We also established the impact of pH value on biosorbent regeneration with the analyzed biosurfactants and determined the critical micelle concentration (CMC) in solutions containing the biosorbent and biosurfactant and in exact samples with heavy metals. Saponin exhibited the highest effectiveness of metals leaching at pH 1-5, and rhamnosides at pH 5-6. In addition, the study demonstrated a significant effect of the ratio of biosorbent mass to washing agent volume (m/V) on the effectiveness of metals leaching. Of the biosurfactants analyzed, saponin was ca. 100% effective in leaching zinc and copper. The effectiveness of the other biosurfactants was lower and depended on the metal being leached
The process of carbon dioxide removal from monoethanolamine (MEA) - water solution was investigated on Poly Di Methyl Siloxane (PDMS) hydrophobic tubular membrane with a ceramic support. The effects of feed temperature, liquid flow rate and MEA concentration on CO2 mass transfer and selectivity were examined and found to be with a reasonable deviation (±25%) with predictions based on the multilayer film model. The membrane resistance was evaluated in separate experiments. The measured CO2 mass fluxes (0.17-0.45 kg/(m2h)) were found to be independent of the MEA concentration in the feed.
Modified Bohm’s formalism was applied to solve the problem of abstruse layer depth profiles measured by the Auger electron spectroscopy technique in real physical systems. The desorbed carbon/passive layer on an NiTi substrate and the adsorbed oxygen/ surface of an NiTi alloy were studied. It was shown that the abstruse layer profiles can be converted to real layer structures using the modified Bohm’s theory, where the quantum potential is due to the Auger electron effect. It is also pointed out that the stationary probability density predicts the multilayer structures of the abstruse depth profiles that are caused by the carbon desorption and oxygen adsorption processes. The criterion for a kind of break or “cut” between the physical and unphysical multilayer systems was found. We conclude with the statement that the physics can also be characterised by the abstruse measurement and modified Bohm’s formalism.
The dynamic performance of cylindrical double-tube adsorption heat pump is numerically analysed using a non-equilibrium model, which takes into account both heat and mass transfer processes. The model includes conservation equations for: heat transfer in heating/cooling fluids, heat transfer in the metal tube, and heat and mass transfer in the adsorbent. The mathematical model is numerically solved using the method of lines. Numerical simulations are performed for the system water-zeolite 13X, chosen as the working pair. The effect of the evaporator and condenser temperatures on the adsorption and desorption kinetics is examined. The results of the numerical investigation show that both of these parameters have a significant effect on the adsorption heat pump performance. Based on computer simulation results, the values of the coefficients of performance for heating and cooling are calculated. The results show that adsorption heat pumps have relatively low efficiency compared to other heat pumps. The value of the coefficient of performance for heating is higher than for cooling