The aim of the presented work was the development of a tracking algorithm for a stereoscopic camera setup equipped with an additional inertial sensor. The input of the algorithm consists of the image sequence, angular velocity and linear acceleration vectors measured by the inertial sensor. The main assumption of the project was fusion of data streams from both sources to obtain more accurate ego-motion estimation. An electronic module for recording the inertial sensor data was built. Inertial measurements allowed a coarse estimation of the image motion field that has reduced its search range by standard image-based methods. Continuous tracking of the camera motion has been achieved (including moments of image information loss). Results of the presented study are being implemented in a currently developed obstacle avoidance system for visually impaired pedestrians.
The article describes a technique developed for identification of extrinsic parameters of a stereovision camera system for the purpose of image rectification without the use of reference calibration objects. The goal of the presented algorithm is the determination of the mutual position of cameras, under the assumption that they can be modeled by pinhole cameras, are separated by a fixed distance and are moving through a stationary scene. The developed method was verified experimentally on image sequences of a scene with a known structure.
The sensor-shifted stereo camera provides the mechanism for obtaining 3D information in a wide field of view. This novel kind of stereo requires a simpler matching process in comparison to convergence stereo. In addition to this, the uncertainty of depth estimation of a target point in 3D space is defined by the spatial quantization caused by the digital images. The dithering approach is a way to reduce the depth reconstruction uncertainty through a controlled adjustment of the stereo parameters that shift the spatial quantization levels. In this paper, a mathematical model that relates the stereo setup parameters to the iso-disparities is developed and used for depth estimation. The enhancement of the depth measurement accuracy for this kind of stereo through applying the dithering method is verified by simulation and physical experiment. For the verification, the uncertainty of the depth measurement using dithering is compared with the uncertainty produced by the direct triangulation method. A 49% improvement of the uncertainly in the depth reconstruction is proved.
The aim of the paper is to measure and forecast concentration of regional development potential on a regional basis. The study covered 14 GUS features, which measure the development potential. The forecast, nominal values and processes’ dynamics were calculated for data from 2010 to 2020, using author made method. The study reveals that key factors determining the diversification of the distribution of the potential include the relation of large agglomerations to their regional surroundings. Therefore, we are dealing with growth poles with different impact levels. Since 2010, the process of concentrating potential in Poland has taken different directions. In poorly developed regions, we observe constant distribution values. Most regions, especially those with medium and high levels of economic development, are characterized by a dynamic increase in the level of concentration 5% to 6% annually. This means that the growth poles «move away» from their surroundings and strengthen their position. Simultaneously, they slightly reduce the distance to the strongest developed region in Poland (Mazowsze). By 2020, these trends will remain unchanged, however regions with a moderately low level of development will observe the fastest growth.
The smart city concept is constantly evolving. More and researchers in Poland and also in the whole world deal with this issue. In practice, it is noted that in cities around the world you can find more and more implemented projects referred as smart, in particular in Barcelona, Vienna and Copenhagen and others. According to the classical definition, smart city means introducing solutions based on the latest information technologies to urban spaces in order to improve the quality of life of city residents. Smart city is a city concept in which solutions can solve the most important problems related to the functioning of cities, such as improvements in public transport and goods in cities, counteracting climate change through the use of energy-saving solutions of city lighting, social inclusion (access city) and others. The concept of smart city is based on IT solutions that are constantly modernized and adapted to specific needs of individual cities. By using real-time access to information, they help make more efficient decisions for city users. However, recent approaches highlight the relationship between modern network technologies and the urban community. One can notice the focus of the researchers on the relational approach, which means combining the smart city concept with the participation of residents in the city management process, and in particular making choices and implementing smart projects. In this sense, the smart city idea defines the way of managing a city in which relations between the self-government, IT providers and science as well as the inhabitants of the city are particularly important. Responding to the needs of residents is particularly important as counteracting the tendency to focus smart products and services in richer places and create socalled an innovation hub with the simultaneous periphery of the remaining districts. Criticism of the smart city concept focuses on the problem of the social polarization of cities, in which the technological revolution contributes more to the increase of socio-economic disparities rather than their decreasing. The aim of the article is to answer the question whether the implementation of the smart city concept polarizes the urban community and does it allow the inclusive development of cities?
5.8S ribosomal RNA plays an important role in protein synthesis and eukaryotic ribosome translocation. Contact DNA insecticides based on antisense fragments of 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene of gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L. showed prospective insecticidal activity on its larvae. The most pronounced insecticidal effect was found for antisense fragments 10 and 11 nucleotides long (oligoRIBO-10 and oligoRIBO-11), whereas 12 nucleotides long fragment (oligoRIBO-12) caused the lowest level of insect mortality. This data corresponds to results obtained earlier using rabbit reticulocyte and wheat germ extracts, where maximum inhibition of protein synthesis was observed when a relevant oligomer 10-11 nucleotides long was used, whilst longer chain lengths resulted in reduced inhibition. Using oligoRIBO-11 fragment we have shown penetration of antisense oligonucleotides to insect cells through insects’ exoskeletons. MALDI technique registered the penetration of the oligoRIBO-11 fragment into insect cells after 30 min and a significant response of insect cells to the applied oligonucleotide after 60 min, which indicates not only that the oligonucleotide enters the insect cells, but also the synthesis of new substances in response to the applied DNA fragment. Contact DNA insecticides developed from the L. dispar 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene provide a novel biotechnology for plant protection using unmodified antisense oligonucleotides.