An analysis of the power system functioning and the behaviors of the energy market participants allows the trends taking place within years to be identified, including these associated with the evolution of the electric energy and power demand profiles. The problems of balancing the peak power demand are of both a short and long term nature, which implies the need for changes in the electricity generation sector. Apart from the existing “silo-type” generation units, the construction of distributed energy sources implemented in the civic formula in the framework of self-sufficient energy communes and energy clusters is becoming increasingly important. Support for these programs is realized both at the legislative level, as well as within dedicated competitions and ministerial activities. The financial support carried out by the National Fund for Environmental Protection and Water Management and the Regional Operational Programs is also noticeable. One of the activities aimed at spreading the idea of clustering was the competition for certified energy clusters, conducted by the Ministry of Energy. The goal of the contest was the promotion and development of the distributed energy sector, which could be used for the improvement of energy security in the local manner and constitute a basis for the knowledge necessary in planning and developing the state’s energy policy. The paper presents a synthetic analysis of the results of the competition for a certified energy cluster from the perspective of planning and operational needs related to the functioning of the power system. Further, the information about the investment plans of new generation capacities, including their breakdown with respect to type, achievable power and costs has been provided. Also, the balancing of the demand for electric energy by own generation within the energy clusters has been characterized for three time perspectives
The article concerns safety of power supply for the final consumers, especially its two comprising elements, which are generation adequacy and distribution system reliability. Generation adequacy has been defined with Loss of Load Probability (LOLP), Loss of Load Expectation (LOLE) and Energy Not Supplied (ENS) indices. Conclusions from generation adequacy forecast prepared by ENSTO-E for Poland compared with other European countries for the years 2020 and 2025 have been discussed along with the resulting threats. Interruptions in energy supply have been characterised by power discontinuity indicator SAIDI. Finally, a reliability and adequacy analysis have been performed for different scenarios of the Polish power system operation in order to assess possibilities of using distributed generation as a backup power source. Based on a simulation model created using the DIgSILENT Power Factory software, the reliability and adequacy calculations have been performed with the probabilistic non-sequential Monte Carlo method and they are followed by a discussion of the obtained results.
Low voltage microgrids are autonomous subsystems, in which generation, storage and power and electrical energy consumption appear. In the paper the main attention has been paid to the voltage stability issue in low voltage microgrid for different variants of its operation. In the introduction a notion of microgrid has been presented, and also the issue of influence of active and reactive power balance on node voltage level has been described. Then description of voltage stability issue has been presented. The conditions of voltage stability and indicators used to determine voltage stability margin in the microgrid have been described. Description of the low voltage test microgrid, as well as research methodology along with definition of considered variants of its operation have been presented further. The results of exemplary calculations carried out for the daily changes in node load of the active and reactive power, i.e. the voltage and the voltage stability margin indexes in nodes have been presented. Furthermore, the changes of voltage stability margin indexes depending on the variant of the microgrid operation have been presented. Summary and formulation of conclusions related to the issue of voltage stability in microgrids have been included at the end of the paper.
The development of a distributed generation will influence the structure of the power transmission and distribution network. Distributed sources have lower power and therefore the lines of lower voltage are used. Therefore, the electric field intensity near such lines is lower. On the other hand magnetic field intensity may prove essential. The main aim of the paper is to present a method estimating the “ballast” of the natural environment at 50 Hz electric and magnetic fields in the power system, with distributed and centralized generation in real operating conditions.
The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.
Currently, the distribution system has been adapted to include a variety of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs). Maximum benefits can be extracted from the distribution system with high penetration of DERs by transforming it into a sustainable, isolated microgrid. The key aspects to be addressed for this transformation are the determination of the slack bus and assurance of reliable supply to the prioritized loads even during contingency. This paper explores the possibilities of transforming the existing distribution system into a sustainable isolated network by determining the slack bus and the optimal locations and capacity of Distributed Generators (DGs) in the isolated network, taking into account the contingencies due to faults in the network. A combined sensitivity index is formulated to determine the most sensitive buses for DG placement. Further, the reliability based on the loss of load in the isolated system when a fault occurs is evaluated, and the modifications required in for reliability improvement are discussed. The supremacy of the transformed isolated network with distributed generators is comprehended by comparing the results from conventional IEEE 33-bus grid connected test system and modified IEEE 33-bus isolated test system having no interconnection with the main grid.
The loss of power and voltage can affect distribution networks that have a significant number of distributed power resources and electric vehicles. The present study focuses on a hybrid method to model multi-objective coordination optimisation problems for dis- tributed power generation and charging and discharging of electric vehicles in a distribution system. An improved simulated annealing based particle swarm optimisation (SAPSO) algorithm is employed to solve the proposed multi-objective optimisation problem with two objective functions including the minimal power loss index and minimal voltage deviation index. The proposed method is simulated on IEEE 33-node distribution systems and IEEE-118 nodes large scale distribution systems to demonstrate the performance and effectiveness of the technique. The simulation results indicate that the power loss and node voltage deviation are significantly reduced via the coordination optimisation of the power of distributed generations and charging and discharging power of electric vehicles.With the methodology supposed in this paper, thousands of EVs can be accessed to the distribution network in a slow charging mode.
This paper presents a new OpenFlow controller: the Distributed Active Information Model (DAIM). The DAIM controller was developed to explore the viability of a logically distributed control plane. It is implemented in a distributed way throughout a software-defined network, at the level of the switches. The method enables local process flows, by way of local packet switching, to be controlled by the distributed DAIM controller (as opposed to a centralised OpenFlow controller). The DAIM ecosystem is discussed with some sample code, together with flowcharts of the implemented algorithms. We present implementation details, a testing methodology, and an experimental evaluation. A performance analysis was conducted using the Cbench open benchmarking tool. Comparisons were drawn with respect to throughput and latency. It is concluded that the DAIM controller can handle a high throughput, while keeping the latency relatively low. We believe the results to date are potentially very interesting, especially in light of the fact that a key feature of the DAIM controller is that it is designed to enable the future development of autonomous local flow process and management strategies.
The transformer-less grid connected inverters are gaining more popularity due to their high efficiency, very low ground leakage current and economic feasibility especially in photovoltaic systems. The major issue which surfaces these systems is that of common mode leakage current which arises due to the absence of an electrical transformer connected between the inverter and the utility grid. Several topologies have evolved to reduce the impact of common mode leakage current and a majority of them have succeeded in eliminating the impacts and have well kept them within the limits of grid standards. This paper compares and analyses the impact of the common mode leakage current for four popular inverter configurations through simulation of the topologies such as H5, H6, HERIC and FBZVR inverters.
This study suggests a new algorithm based on a combination of fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm (GA) to improve voltage profile in a microgrid. The considered microgrid includes control variables such as onload tap changer (OLTC), active power output from distributed generators (DG) and reactive power output from feeder switched capacitors that are controlled in a microgrid controller (MGC) by communication links. The proposed method was used to obtain the optimum value of control variables to establish voltage stabilization in varying load condition as online. For establishing voltage stabilization at the microgrid, an objective function is defined and is tried to minimize it by control variables. The control variables were changed based on fuzzy logic and the GA was employed for finding the optimum shape of membership functions. In order to verify the proposed method, a 34 buses microgrid in varying load condition was analyzed and was compared with previous works.
The active distribution network (ADN) represents the future development of distribution networks, whether the islanding phenomenon occurs or not determines the control strategy adopted by the ADN. The best wavelet packet has a better time-frequency characteristic than traditional wavelet analysis in the different signal processing, because it can extract better and more information from the signal effectively. Based on wavelet packet energy and the neural network, the islanding phenomenon of the ADN can be detected. Firstly, the wavelet packet is used to decompose current and voltage signals of the public coupling point between the distributed photovoltaic (PV) system and power grid, and calculate the energy value of each decomposed frequency band. Secondly, the network is trained using the constructed energy characteristic matrix as a neural network learning sample. At last, in order to achieve the function of identification for islanding detection, lots of samples are trained in the neural network. Based on the actual circumstance of PV operation in the ADN, the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model of the ADN is established. After the simulation, there are good output results, which show that the method has the characteristics of high identification accuracy and strong generalization ability.