In this article I make a critical analysis of educational policy in Poland during the 25 years of the political transformation. I try to refer to the Polish thoughts and practices of teaching experience in the period of 1989–2014. What is more, I present experiences of anti-socialist opposition during the socialist period. They influenced on impression in the works and commitments of many scientists and a new generation of academics. Furthermore, I indicate how my generation after 1989 went into the road of scientific autonomy and / or independence in the field of government and private education. Benchmark for these analyzes build up the hopes which we tied up with the Polish revolution of non- violence. Moreover, there was a strong disappointment, which revealed over the years due to the departure of distinctive political formation of the Third Republic of the ideals and the phenomenon of Polish „Solidarity” movement, and civil society, which included the move away from the base of participatory democracy. Finally, I look at how education as a science and practice of education fit into democratization of the Polish state and society. The key meaning for me has the perception of education as a common good, as environments and entities, institutions or management practices which participate in the democratic society. To sum up, this society is constantly in the period of recovery from years of experience not only fascist, but Bolshevik totalitarianism, too.
My article is a synthetic recognition of macro-Polish governments’ evolution over 25 years of political transformation. It is presented from the perspective of education for democracy, in a democracy and not about democracy. I explain, how it is possible, that the Poles after they got rid of monistic doctrine of the totalitarian state, are subjected to hidden process of democratization of education and the school system. I analyze public education ,mechanisms and structures for its management in a way that counteracts democratic change. The school is subjected to a mechanism of political gamemakers. It becomes an institution which is painfully ineffective and without its face. This institution devastates traditions and allows intellectual regression. There are threats to educational reforms which lie not only in the sociopolitical mechanisms, but also and perhaps primarily within the education system, which has not created procedures to eliminate Pharisees of innovation from it. Polish educational system after 25 years of transformation is not only partially reprivatized but highly bureaucratic and fully involved in political parties.
The article deals with issues concerning the pedagogical aims of studying traditional humanities in present realities of Polish society, which at the end of the 20th century overthrew communism. The new political and civilization conditions have caused major social changes that require a new approach to the humanities. Meanwhile, in Poland there is still a traditional and conservative cult of national identity and heritage, which prevents the development of an open society based on cultural tolerance and understanding of the differences that separate us from the West and other cultures. Humanities should be an academic tool for shaping an individual and creative personality and not for preserving national cultural and historical mythology. Such social pedagogy leads to a closed society oriented towards the past and not towards modernity. An educational policy that promotes this attitude treats cultural heritage as a tool of political control over society. In our times, humanities consist in discovering and interpreting the world around us and in forming an independent thinking. Literature, philosophy and other liberal arts cannot be just a sterile studying of a dead tradition.
Educational policy is a complex social phenomenon which both determines and is determined by political, socio-cultural, economic or demographic conditions. It is treated as deliberate activities of state and local authorities strictly related to educational practice. Therefore, each educational policy should be a planned activity which is based on a broader programme and which takes into account developmental strategies not only of education but also of the region or state. The period following the system transformation in Poland has involved numerous activities which – from teachers' perspective – have been treated as unexpected or even threatening their professional situation or the whole education. however, J. Rutkowiak emphasizes that relations between politics and pedagogy result from social engagement of both educationalists and teachers in politics and, thus, it is indispensable to treat politics as a dimension of their daily functioning at work . The following questions are raised: what are actual teachers' expectations from politicians and the educational policy? how do teachers assess the educational policy and situate it in their professional daily routine? Referring to Rutkowiak, is this policy a significant dimension of their daily functioning at work or a factor of unpredictable results which may appear at any time – the expected unexpected as the title suggests? what is presented in this study are some analyses of the data collected in the studies on educational policy and politicians, conducted among teachers in 2000–2014.
The article include the consideration of social functions of higher education for indigenous minorities living in the Arctic. Particular emphasis was placed on reconstructing educational practices and the language policy that is implemented toward indigenous minorities in Alaska, Canadian Arctic, Greenland, northern regions of Scandinavia and Northern Russia. An attempt was made at examining the relationship between higher education, language policy, and the development of ethnic identity.
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badania socjolingwistycznego środowiska językowego w szkołach średnich na Ukrainie, na podstawie którego stwierdzono jego dwujęzyczność. W badaniu udowodniono, że specyfika sytuacji językowej na Ukrainie polega na tym, że jakość środowiska językowego nie odpowiada deklarowanemu poziomowi szkół. Prześledzono zmiany w ocenie środowiska językowego szkół średnich w ciągu dekady (od 2006 do 2017 roku), na podstawie których stwierdzono, że istnieje możliwość opracowania zaleceń w celu poprawy wsparcia prawnego używania języków w systemie edukacji na Ukrainie.
Artykuł prezentuje gdański Model Integracji Imigrantów w obszarze edukacji, na tle dwuletnich doświadczeń szkół, instytucji samorządowych oraz organizacjach społecznych, zaangażowanych w tworzenie warunków edukacji imigrantów. Uczniowie cudzoziemscy, zdefiniowani jako „cudzy”, nienależący do wspólnoty „swoich”, nie są podmiotem polityki edukacyjnej, jednak natychmiast po przekroczeniu progu szkoły stają się jej przedmiotem. Prawo i szkolne praktyki wyznaczają im miejsce w systemie, które staje się ogromnym wyzwaniem zarówno dla nauczycieli i dyrektorów szkół, jak i dla samych uczniów i ich rodziców. Gdańska droga do wypracowania miejskiej polityki edukacyjnej dla imigrantów wiodła od interwencji, poprzez diagnozę problemów i uczenie się od innych, do poszukiwania własnych innowacyjnych rozwiązań.