The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of the naphthalic anhydride safener on the protection of common bean cultivars BRS-Estilo (carioca) and BRS-Esplendor (black) from negative effects of herbicides. Two experiments were conducted, one for each cultivar in a complete randomized design with five replications, in a 6 × 3 factorial scheme, with six herbicide treatments: bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, fomesafen, cloransulam, and control without application, and three naphthalic anhydride treatments: without application, foliar application, and application via seed treatment. Visible injuries at 7, 14 and 21 days after application, photosystem II electron transport rate, and plant dry weight were evaluated. The naphthalic anhydride applied via foliar, and seed treatment reduced significantly the visible injuries in relation to the control when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen, bentazon + imazamox, and cloransulam. The photosystem II electron transport rate was protected by anhydride applied via foliar and seed treatment when using the herbicides bentazon, fluazifop-P + fomesafen and bentazon + + imazamox. The application of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment protected the BRS-Estilo and BRS-Esplendor common bean cultivars, with no reductions in the plant dry weight when using the herbicides fluazifop-P + fomesafen, and fomesafen. The use of naphthalic anhydride via seed treatment and foliar application protected BRS-Estilo and BRSEsplendor common bean cultivars, from the negative effects of fluazifop-P + fomesafen and fomesafen herbicides. Thus, this practice has potential to be used in common beans.
In this paper an artificial neural network, which realizes a nonlinear adaptive control algorithm, has been applied in a control system of variable speed generating system. The speed is adjusted automatically as a function of load power demand. The controller employs a single layer neural network to estimate the unknown plant nonlinearities online. Optimization of the controller is difficult because the plant is nonlinear and no stationary. Furthermore, it deals with the situation where the plant becomes uncontrollable without any restrictive assumptions. In contrast to previous work  on the same subject, the number of neural networks has been reduced to only one network. The number of the neurons in a network structure as well as choosing certain design parameters was specified a priori. The computer test results have been presented to show performance of proposed neural controller.
We talk about technology, lexicography, and long-forgotten word senses in Polish with Prof. Włodzimierz Gruszczyński from the PAS Institute of the Polish Language, where work is underway on the Electronic Dictionary of the Polish Language of the 17th and 18th Centuries.
The emerging potentials in the electronics field, which facilitate the creation of complex projects with innovative functionalities, while maintaining low costs, are becoming even more appreciated by designers and engineers. In this manuscript, a telemetry system was designed and realized for monitoring main parameters of a racing vehicle. A STM32 Nucleo board acquires data from sensors installed on vehicle and transmits them to a base station. Acquired data are both stored on a SD card and wirelessly transmitted, for ensuring robustness/reliability of operation. The carried out tests confirm the truthfulness and compatibility of acquired data related to the vehicle parameters.
New optimized 2x2 slotted array antenna is designed using HFSS to operate at 28.1 GHz, using RT6010 substrate with height of 1.6 mm, tangent loss of 0.0023 and dielectric constant of 10.2 and overall dimension of 12x12 mm2, for 5G mobile applications. The 2x2 slotted linear array antenna achieved a high gain of 18.3 dB at 28.1 GHz with 10 dB bandwidth of 1.39 GHz, and with 83.21% of size reduction.
This paper presents an experimental system for remote communication between road users and traffic signs. Implemented solution consists of two modules: a transmitter (traffic sign), including novel system for remote waking-up by the passing vehicle with use of the quasi-passive (biased) diode detector circuit, and a receiver (vehicle), which is responsible for wake-up signaling and interpreting received messages. Both modules use Wi-Fi protocol operating in 2.4 GHz ISM band for sending data, and OOK signaling in 868 MHZ ISM band for sending wake-up signals. The paper provides theoretical analysis, description of design challenges and chosen solutions, and finally, laboratory measurements as well as the results of tests conducted in the systems’ target environment with a moving vehicle, confirming correct operation of the system.
The Low Temperature Joining Technique (LTJT) using silver compounds enables to significantly increase the thermal conductivity between joined elements, which is much higher than for soldered joints. However, it also makes difficult to measure the thermal conductivity of the joint. The Laser Flash Analysis (LFA) is a non-intrusive method of measuring the temperature rise of one surface of a specimen after excitation with a laser pulse of its other surface. The main limitation of the LFA method is its standard computer software, which assumes the dimensions of a bonded component to be similar to those of the substrate, because it uses the standard Parker’s formula dedicated for one-dimensional heat flow. In the paper a special design of measured specimen was proposed, consisting of two copper plates of different size joined with the sintered silver layer. It was shown that heat properties of these specimens can also be measured after modifying the LFA method. The authors adapted these specimens by masking the false heat signal sourced from the uncovered plate area. Another adaptation was introducing a correcting factor of the heat travel distance, which was calculated with heat-flow simulations and placed into the Parker’s formula. The heat-flow simulated data were compared with the real LFA measurement results, which enabled estimation of the joint properties, e.g. its porosity.
Temperature change is one of key factors which should be taken into account in logistics during transportation or storage of many types of goods. In this study, a passive UHF RFID-enabled sensor system for elevated temperature (above 58°C) detection has been demonstrated. This system consists of an RFID reader and disposable temperature sensor comprising an UHF antenna, chip and temperature sensitive unit. The UHF antenna was designed and simulated in an IE3D software. The properties of the system were examined depending on the temperature level, type of package which contains the studied objects and the type of antenna substrate.
Most of the developing countries economy largely depends on the agriculture. More than half of the population rely on agriculture related activities for their survival. In spite of dependency on agriculture, the technological development of agricultural work in developing country is not comparable to the countries like Australia or Israel. The main reason behind the lack of development is the small size of farms. Such farmers cannot afford expensive technology available in the market due to limited profit margins. The report describes an autonomous fertilization system that takes care of the fertilization requirements of the small scale farms at affordable rates. The system is divided in two parts namely User Interface and Control System. The user interface is designed using the state of the art Raspberry Pi board and a touch screen LCD. The control system is developed using the Arduino platform and can control five fertilizers at a time. The output of the system is the mix of the fertilizer, which is forced into the drip irrigation system of the farm. The system has built in data for the fertilization requirement for important crops and vegetation. The system also facilitates the customize fertilization requirements to be added in the system as per the user requirements.
Permanent magnet motors are more and more frequently used in various applications. In this group motors with a trapezoidal EMF deserve a special attention. They are characterized by a simple construction, high efficiency and high torque overload. A certain drawback of BLDC motors are difficulties with an operation at a speed above the nominal value. The article presents the results of investigations into the variablestructure electronic commutator designed for the drive of a small electric vehicle equipped with BLDC motors. Such a solution allows extending the standard range of the drive's speed. The considerations contained in the article focus on the possibilities and effects of regeneration mode in the proposed topology of converter. A theoretical analysis has been presented as well as computer simulations carried out by means of Matlab- Simulink, which were then verified at a laboratory. The tests were finished with trias conducted using a small electric vehicle Elipsa.
The article presents the analysis of the simulation test results for three variants of the power electronics used as interface between the power network and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with the following parameters: power of 250 kW, current of 500 A DC and voltage of 500 V DC. Three interface topologies were analyzed: two-level AC-DC and DC-DC converters; three-level systems and mixed systems combining a three-level active rectifier and a two-level DC-DC converter. The following criteria were considered: input and output current and voltage distortions, determined as THDi and THDu, power losses in power electronics components; cost of the semiconductor components for each topology and total cost of the interface. Results of the analysis showed that for high-power low-voltage and high-current power electronics systems, the most advantageous solution from a technical and economical perspective is a two-level interface configuration in relation to both AC-DC and DC-DC converters.
The paper presents the method of control of an induction squirrel-cage machine supplied by a voltage source converter. The presented idea is based on an innovative method of the voltage source converter control, consisting in direct joining of the motor control system with the voltage source rectifier control system. The combined control system gives good dc-bus voltage stabilization. In the applied control system the limits of the reference variables have been introduced. A correction of the estimated machine load torque is proposed. The new proposed solutions are confirmed by mathematical dependences, simulation and experimental results.
Fault detection and location are important and front-end tasks in assuring the reliability of power electronic circuits. In essence, both tasks can be considered as the classification problem. This paper presents a fast fault classification method for power electronic circuits by using the support vector machine (SVM) as a classifier and the wavelet transform as a feature extraction technique. Using one-against-rest SVM and one-against-one SVM are two general approaches to fault classification in power electronic circuits. However, these methods have a high computational complexity, therefore in this design we employ a directed acyclic graph (DAG) SVM to implement the fault classification. The DAG SVM is close to the one-against-one SVM regarding its classification performance, but it is much faster. Moreover, in the presented approach, the DAG SVM is improved by introducing the method of Knearest neighbours to reduce some computations, so that the classification time can be further reduced. A rectifier and an inverter are demonstrated to prove effectiveness of the presented design.
A simple analog circuit is presented which can play a neuron role in static-model-based neural networks implemented in the form of an integrated circuit. Operating in a transresistance mode it is suited to cooperate with transconductance synapses. As a result, its input signal is a current which is a sum of currents coming from the synapses. Summation of the currents is realized in a node at the neuron input. The circuit has two outputs and provides a step function signal at one output and a linear function one at the other. Activation threshold of the step output can be conveniently controlled by means of a voltage. Having two outputs, the neuron is attractive to be used in networks taking advantage of fuzzy logic. It is built of only five MOS transistors, can operate with very low supply voltages, consumes a very low power when processing the input signals, and no power in the absence of input signals. Simulation as well as experimental results are shown to be in a good agreement with theoretical predictions. The presented results concern a 0.35 1m CMOS process and a prototype fabricated in the framework of Europractice.
WILGA annual symposium on advanced photonic and electronic systems has been organized by young scientist for young scientists since two decades. It traditionally gathers around 400 young researchers and their tutors. Ph.D students and graduates present their recent achievements during well attended oral sessions. Wilga is a very good digest of Ph.D. works carried out at technical universities in electronics and photonics, as well as information sciences throughout Poland and some neighboring countries. Publishing patronage over Wilga keep Elektronika technical journal by SEP, IJET and Proceedings of SPIE. The latter world editorial series publishes annually more than 200 papers from Wilga. Wilga 2018 was the XLII edition of this meeting. The following topical tracks were distinguished: photonics, electronics, information technologies and system research. The article is a digest of some chosen works presented during Wilga 2018 symposium. WILGA 2017 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10445. WILGA 2018 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10808.