Prof. Michał Kowal (National Centre for Nuclear Research, NCBJ) talks about the complexities of theoretical work, long-lived and excited nuclear states, and the frontier of our knowledge about superheavy atomic nuclei.
The standard PN-EN_1993-1-5:_2008 (Eurocode 3) compared with the standard (PN-B-03200:_1990) used previously in Poland, introduces extended rules referring to the computations of the bearing capacity of the plated structural elements including the shear lag effect. The stress distribution in the width flanges is variable. Therefore in the case of the beam with the shear lag effect cannot be calculated by the classic beam theory. In this article a comparison of the results of the calculations of forces distribution, stresses and displacement according to the rule presented in PN-EN_1993 and results of the numerical computations for_3D model (using finite element method) is presented. The elastic shear lag effects, the elastic shear lag effects including effects of the plate buckling and the elastic-plastic shear lag effects including the local instabilities were analysed. The calculations were performed for beams with a small and a large span and an influence of stiffeners was analysed.
Metal contents in the tundra soils (Gelic Regosols, Gelic Gleysols, Gelic Cambisols) of the maritime lowland of Kaffiöyra, in the western Spitsbergen seashore are presented in this publication. The average heave metal contents in samples collected from the depth layer 0—130 cm are follows: Fe 2.9%, Mn 392 ppm, Zn 75 ppm, Cu 23.4 ppm, Ni 24.1 ppm, Co 7.4 ppm, Pb 12.5 ppm, Cd 0.24 ppm. The surface soil layer 0 to 25 cm is poorer in Ca and Mg than the underlying layer 25 to 130 cm. The heave metal contents like Fe, Mn, Ni and Co, are also somewhat lower in the upper layer. The enrichment indices of Pb and Cd are equal in the surface soil layer 1.16 and 1.23 respectively. Correlation coefficients between each studied element and organic carbon, and, on the other hand, soil separates < 20 μm and < 2 μm are very low.
Beams with rectangular cross-section, with large length-to-width ratio, can be excited to torsional vibrations. If the piezoelectric elements are mounted to the beam in pairs at the same cross-section with two separated elements positioned on the same side of the beam, and the voltages applied to them are in the opposite phase, they produce twisting moments which can be applied to reduce the torsional vibrations. Results of FEM simulations are presented and analysed in the paper. All analyses are performed for a steel free-clamped beam. The piezoelectric elements made of PZT material are mounted in pairs on one side of the beam. The analyses are done for separated natural modes.
The use of biomass in the energy industry is the consequence of ongoing efforts to replace Energy from fossil fuels with energy from renewable sources. However, due to the diversity of the biomass, its use as a solid fuel generates waste with diverse and unstable chemical composition. Waste from biomass combustion is a raw material with a very diverse composition, even in the case of using only one type of biomass. The content of individual elements in fly ash from the combustion of biomass ranges from zero to tens of percent. This makes it difficult to determine the optimal recovery methods. The ashes from the combustion of biomass are most commonly used in the production of building materials and agriculture. This article presents the elemental composition of the most commonly used biomass fuels. The results of the analysis of elemental composition of fly ashes from the combustion of forest and agricultural biomass in fluidized bed boilers used in the commercial power industry were presented. These ashes are characterized by a high content of calcium (12.3–19.4%), silicon (1.2–8.3%), potassium (0.05–1.46%), chlorine (1.1–6.1%), and iron (0.8–6.5%). The discussed ashes contained no sodium. Aluminum was found only in one of the five ashes. Manganese, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, zinc, sulfur, bismuth, titanium and zirconium were found in all of the examined ashes. The analysis of elemental composition may allow for a preliminary assessment of the recovery potential of a given ash.
Distribution of the following elements: Na, K, Ca and Mg, and heavy metals: Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd was analysed in the Gelic Cambisols profile from Kaffiöyra, Spitsbergen. The leaching of Ca, Fe, Mn, Co and Cu, and in a less degree Mg and Ni downward the profiles occurs in the studied soil due to pedogenic processes. The surface soil horizon is strongly enriched in Na and K of marine origin and Pb and Cd from anthropogenic pollution of the distant atmospheric transports.
Magnetic properties of silicon iron electrical steel are determined by using standardized measurement setups and distinct excitation parameters. Characteristic values for magnetic loss and magnetization are used to select the most appropriate material for its application. This approach is not sufficient, because of the complex material behavior inside electrical machines, which can result in possible discrepancies between estimated and actual machine behavior. The materials’ anisotropy can be one of the problems why simulation and measurement are not in good accordance.With the help of a rotational single sheet tester, the magnetic material can be tested under application relevant field distribution. Thereby, additional effects of hysteresis and anisotropy can be characterized for detailed modelling and simulation.
The presented article describes the method for determining one of the trace elements occurring in coalbismuth. The subjects of the analysis were coal type 34, 35 and their fly ashes derived from Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa. The main reason for the research was the extensive use of bismuth in many industry sectors. Additionally, bismuth is on the list of deficit elements, therefore the possibility of obtaining an alternative for its recycling source of it is needed, is required. The research was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with electrothermal atomization in a graphite cuvette. The samples were incinerated at 800°C and microwave mineralization in a high-pressure closed system was performed until the spectrometric analysis was achieved. In order to achieve mineralization, a mixture of HF and HNO3 acids was used to turn the samples into acidic solutions. The preparation of the samples was based on available literature data and own observations. In the experiment, the effects of the additive modifier was modified by changing the temperature in further steps: drying, incineration, cooling, atomization and burning were described. In addition, the palladium modifier was used in order to limit secondary reactions and enable the evaporation of matrix components. The measurement conditions which are presented in this article allow for a linear calibration curve to be established. However, this is not clear and the definitive method for determining the bismuth in coal is carried out through the use of ET-AAS.
This paper presents an overview of basic concepts, features and difficulties of the boundary element method (BEM) and examples of its application to exterior and interior problems. The basic concepts of the BEM are explained firstly, and different methods for treating the non-uniqueness problem are described. The application of the BEM to half-space problems is feasible by considering a Green's Function that satisfies the boundary condition on the infinite plane. As a special interior problem, the sound field in an ultrasonic homogenizer is computed. A combination of the BEM and the finite element method (FEM) for treating the problem of acoustic-structure interaction is also described. Finally, variants of the BEM are presented, which can be applied to problems arising in flow acoustics.
The present paper is dedicated to presentation and energy verification of the methods of stabilization the strain energy by penalty coefficients. Verification of the methods is based on the consistency and ellipticity conditions to be satisfied by the finite elements. Three methods of stabilization are discussed. The first does not satisfy the above requirements. The second is consistent but cannot eliminate parasitic energy terms. The third method, proposed by the author, is based on the decomposition of the element stiffness matrix. The method can help to eliminate locking of the finite elements. For two-noded beam element with linear shape functions and exact integration a stabilized free of locking (and elliptical) element is received (equivalent to reduced integration element). Two plate finite elements are analyzed: four-noded rectangular element and DSG triangle. A new method of stabilization with the use of four independent parameters is proposed. The finite elements with this kind of stabilization satisfy the consistency condition. In the rectangular element it was not possible to eliminate one parasitic term of energy which appears during the procedure. For DSG triangle all parasitic terms of energy are eliminated. The penalty coefficients depends on the geometry of the triangle.
A numerical analysis of the initially clamped bolt joint subject to the working pressure is presented in the paper. Special, hexahedral 21- and 28-node isoparametric finite elements have been employed to model the contact zone. In this model, one takes into account loading due to the working pressure in the gap between the gasket and the flange arising as an effect of the progressing joint opening, what has not been considered in recent papers. Nonlinear stiffness characteristics of the bolt and the flange with the gasket are developed. Working pressure corresponding to the critical bolt force resulting in the joint leakage (complete opening between the gasket and the flange) is determined. FE computational results are compared with the available experimental results. The numerical results are presented using the authors' own graphical postprocessor.
The research involved coal from 11 coal mines in the USCB in Poland, intended for combustion in power plants and for home furnaces. It has been stated that the content of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in the ash of coal fines from the USCB with a density of <1.30 × 103 kg/m3 is the largest, and in the ash fraction with a density >2.00 × 103 kg/m3 is the smallest The fraction ash of coal fine with a density> 2.00 × 103 kg/m3 has the greatest impact on the content of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mo, Pb and Zn in whole coal fines from the USCB. In turn, the largest impact on the content of Cu, Ni and Sb in whole fine coal ash has the fraction of coal fine having a density of 1.60–2.00 × 103 kg/m3 (for Cu) and fraction with a density <1.35 × 103 kg/m3 (Ni and Sb). The main carriers of elements in fine coal ash, thus in future furnace waste, are the grains of aluminosilicates and iron oxides resulting from the combustion of probably fusinite and semifusinite and the combustion of adhesions of these macerals with dolomite, ankerite and pyrite. The purification of fine coal from the matter with a density >2.00 × 103 kg/m3 may reduce the sulfur content (by 40%), the content of main element oxides (from 33% to 85%) and the content of ecotoxic elements (from 7% to 59%) in fine coal ash, i.e. in potential furnace wastes. Due to the small content of mineral matter, ash and sulfur in coal, small content of Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P oxides and high content of SiO2 in coal ash, low value of the Rogi sinterability index, small inclination of coal fine to slag the furnaces and boiler fouling by sludge, the investigated coal was favorable for technological reasons, fuel in power plants and for home furnaces
The present work focuses on the modeling and analysis of mechanical properties of structural steel. The effect of major alloying elements namely carbon, manganese and silicon has been investigated on mechanical properties of structural steel. Design of experiments is used to develop linear models for the responses namely Yield strength, Ultimate tensile strength and Elongation. The experiments have been conducted as per the full factorial design where all process variables are set at two levels. The main effect plots showed that the alloying elements Manganese and Silicon have positive contribution on Ultimate tensile strength and Yield strength. However, Carbon and Manganese showed more contribution as compared to Silicon. All three alloying elements are found to have negative contribution towards the response- Elongation. The present work is found to be useful to control the mechanical properties of structural steel by varying the major alloying elements. Minitab software has been used for statistical analysis. The linear regression models have been tested for the statistical adequacy by utilizing ANOVA and statistical significance test. Further, the prediction capability of the developed models is tested with the help of test cases. It is found that all linear regression models are found to be statistically adequate with good prediction capability. The work is useful to foundrymen to choose alloying elements composition to get desirable mechanical properties.
Underground mining extraction causes the displacement and changes of stress fields in the surrounding rock mass. The determination of the changes is extremely important when the mining activity takes place in the proximity of post-flotation tailing ponds, which may affect the stability of the tailing dams. The deterministic modeling based on principles of continuum mechanics with the use of numerical methods, e.g. finite element method (FEM) should be used in all problems of predicting rock mass displacements and changes of stress field, particularly in cases of complex geology and complex mining methods. The accuracy of FEM solutions depends mainly on the quality of geomechanical parameters of the geological strata. The parameters, e.g. young modulus of elasticity, may require verification through a comparison with measured surface deformations using geodetic methods. This paper presents application of FEM in predicting effects of underground mining on the surface displacements in the area of the KGHM safety pillar of the tailing pond of the OUOW Żelazny Most. The area has been affected by room and pillar mining with roof bending in the years 2008-2016 and will be further exposed to room-and-pillar extraction with hydraulic filling in the years 2017–2019.
The issue of mercury emission and the need to take action in this direction was noticed in 2013 via the Minamata Convention. Therefore, more and more often, work and new law regulations are commencing to reduce this chemical compound from the environment. The paper presents the problem of removing mercury from waste gases due to new BREF/BAT restrictions, in which the problem of the need to look for new, more efficient solutions to remove this pollution was also indicated. Attention is paid to the problem of the occurrence of mercury in the exhaust gases in the elemental form and the need to carry out laboratory tests. A prototype installation for the sorption of elemental mercury in a pure gas stream on solid sorbents is presented. The installation was built as part of the LIDER project, financed by the National Center for Research and Development in a project entitled: “The Application of Waste Materials From the Energy Sector to Capture Mercury Gaseous Forms from Flue Gas”. The installation is used for tests in laboratory conditions in which the carrier gas of elemental mercury is argon. The first tests on the zeolite sorbent were made on the described apparatus. The tested material was synthetic zeolite X obtained as a result of a two-stage reaction of synthesis of fly ash type C with sodium hydroxide. Due to an increase, the chemical affinity of the tested material in relation to mercury, the obtained zeolite material was activated with silver ions (Ag+) by an ion exchange using silver nitrate (AgNO3). The first test was specified for a period of time of about 240 minutes. During this time, the breakthrough of the tested zeolite material was not recorded, and therefore it can be concluded that the tested material may be promising in the development of new solutions for capturing mercury in the energy sector. The results presented in this paper may be of interest to the energy sector due to the solution of several environmental aspects. The first of them is mercury sorption tests for the development of new exhaust gases treatment technologies. On the other hand, the second aspect raises the possibility of presenting a new direction for the management and utilization of combustion by-products such as fly ash.
The demand for REE was the background to include them to those consisting of the property of the State Treasury in Poland, enumerated in the Geological and Mining Law (Article 10). The PLN 500/kg REE payment for exploitation of REE (exploitation tax) was introduced. Both proposals will restrain the REE recovery from exploited domestic mineral commodities. The term REE is imprecise. Their deposits are rare and may be classified as “REE ore deposits”. The REE are often the accompanying constituents in varied mineral commodities and are recoverable during their processing, outside the mine. The application of an exploitation tax in such a case is inapplicable. The established value of the exploitation tax is incomparably high in respect to the value of the REE contained in mined mineral commodities. The analysis of introduced changes of mining and geological law allow to suggest the reevaluation of ownership based subdivision of mineral commodities: name the mineral commodities belonging to the land property owners and leave the list of mineral commodities consisting property of the State Treasury open. The more careful approach is also necessary in the formulation of Geological and Mining Law. It should be preliminary formulated by persons competent in geology and mining and subsequently adjusted to juridical exigencies.
The accurate prediction of iron losses has become a prominent problem in electromagnetic machine design. The basis of all iron loss models is found in the spatial field-locus of the magnetic flux density (B) and magnetic field (H). In this paper the behavior of the measured BH-field-loci is considered in FEM simulation. For this purpose, a vector hysteresis model is parameterized based on the global measurements, which then can be used to reproduce the measurement system and obtain more detailed insights on the device and its local field distribution. The IEM has designed a rotary loss tester for electrical steel, which can apply arbitrary BH-field-loci occurring during electrical machine operation. Despite its simplicity, the proposed pragmatic analytical model for vector hysteresis provides very promising results.
This paper deals with the modelling of traction linear induction motors (LIMs) for public transportation. The magnetic end effect inherent to these motors causes an asymmetry of their phase impedances. Thus, if the LIM is supplied from the three-phase symmetrical voltage, its phase currents become asymmetric. This effect must be taken into consideration when simulating the LIMs’ performance. Otherwise, when the motor phase currents are assumed to be symmetric in the simulation, the simulation results are in error. This paper investigates the LIM performance, considering the end-effect induced asymmetry of the phase currents, and presents a comparative study of the LIM performance characteristics in both the voltage and the current mode.
By simulating the actual working conditions of a cable, the temperature variation rule of different measuring points under different load currents was analyzed. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) was established, and the difference and influence factors between the simulation temperature and the experimental measured value were discussed, then the influence of thermal conductivity on the operating temperature of the conductor layer was studied. Finally, combined with the steady-state thermal conductivity model and the experimental measured data, the relation between thermal conductivity and load current was obtained.
The authors present a numerical study of a start-up of a boiler with a thick-walled element subjected to thermomechanical loading. The significance of calculations of real heat transfer coefficients has been demonstrated. Fluid dynamics, mechanical transient thermal and static structural calculations have been conducted in both separate and coupled modes. Strain-stress analyses prove that the effect of the heat transfer coefficient changing in time and place in comparison with a constant one as recommended by standards is the key factor of fatigue calculations.
Red basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cv. Red Rubin was cultivated in model pot experiment in the soil amended by arsenic, cadmium and lead solutions in stepwise concentrations representing the soil concentration levels of former mining area in the vicinity of Příbram, Czech Republic. The element levels added to the soil reached up to 40 mg Cd, 100 mg As, and 2000 mg Pb per kg of soil. Moreover, essential macro-and microelements as well as cyanidine contents were investigated to assess their potential interactions with the risk elements. The extractable element portions in soils determined at the end of vegetation period differed according to the individual elements. Whereas the plant-available (extractable with 0.11M CH3COOH) content of Cd represented 70-100% of the added Cd, the mobile portion of Pb did not exceed 1%. The risk element content in plants reflected the increasing element contents in soil. The dominant element portions remained in plant roots indicating the limited translocation ability of risk elements to the aboveground biomass of this plant species. Although the risk element contents in amended plants significantly increased, no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity occurred. However, the effect of enhanced risk element contents on the essential element uptake was assessed. Considering inter-element relationships, elevated sulphur levels were seen in amended plants, indicating its possible role of phytochelatin synthesis in the plants. Moreover, the molybdenum contents in plant biomass dropped down with increasing risk element uptake by plants confirming As-Mo and Cd-Mo antagonism. The increasing content of cyanidine in the plant biomass confirmed possible role of anthocyanins in detoxification mechanism of risk element contaminated plants and suggested the importance of anthocyanin pigments for risk element tolerance of plants growing in contaminated areas.
The potential of ﬁve plants namely Atriplex halimus L., A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., Suaeda fruticosa (Forssk. ex J.F. Gmel.), Marrubium vulgare L. and Dittrichia viscosa (L.) Greuter from two selected wetlands in northwest Algeria subjected to house and industrial efﬂuents were examined to assess their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) diversity and colonization, as well as to determine their tolerance and ability in accumulating metallic trace elements (MTEs). The purpose was to investigate whether, or not, these fungi are related to metallic uptake. Arbuscular mycorrhizal association was observed in all plant species, since the dual association between AMF and dark septate endophytes (DSE) was found in roots of 80% plants species. Hence, the decreasing trend of metal accumulation in most plant organs was Zn>Cu>Pb, and the most efﬁ cient species were M. vulgare> S. fruticosa> A. canescens> D. viscosa> A. halimus. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) and the transport factors indicated that all these species were phytoremediators. Pearson correlation showed that Cd bioaccumulation and translocation were inhibited by AMF infection; meanwhile Zn, Pb and Cd accumulation were affected by AMF spore density and species richness, DSE frequency, pH, AMF and plant host. Native halophytes showed a multi-metallic resistance capacity in polluted wetlands. M. vulgare was the most efﬁcient in metal accumulation and the best host for mycorrhizal fungi. AMF played a major role in metal accumulation and translocation.
The major aim of the study was to identify the relationships of photosynthetic pigments with elemental contents of plants exposed to various ambient air conditions. Lolium multiflorum L. plants were exposed at five sites varying in environmental characteristics, including potential air pollution levels. The effect of air pollution by trace elements on plants was examined. Selected trace elements (Pb, Cd, As, Ni, Cr), some macro-elements as well as chlorophyll content were measured after each of four series. The graphical visualization revealed groups of sites with similar response of elements and chlorophyll contents. Sites located outside the city were grouped into one, and two urban sites were grouped into another. The trace element contents were relatively low and, excluding Ni and As, did not reach toxic levels in dry mass of leaves. However, some relations could be noted, which indicates the sensitivity of the photosynthetic process even at low levels of trace elements in ambient air. Chlorophyll b was found to be more sensitive to most of the analyzed trace elements than chlorophyll a. The results revealed chlorophylls, K and Na as indicators of plant stress caused by trace elements present in ambient air, even at relatively low levels.
Laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to study mobility of chromium and lead in floodplain sediments. The main goal of the research was to verify a hypothesis whether changes of chromium and lead concentration could be used to estimate the relative age of floodplain deposits. The basis for undertaking such research was the presence of weaving industry centers in the Obra River valley between the 16th and the 19th century and using Cr and Pb compounds in paint recipes. The Cr and Pb contents were also analyzed in three vertical profiles unaffected by the field experiments. The age of organic sediments in each of the profiles was determined using the radiocarbon analysis. The results of the laboratory experiments have shown that the highest contents of the elements were noted in the surface layer of the sediments placed in the column. However, the contents decreased during the last phase of the experiments and both vertical and horizontal migration of both elements was observed. A more intensive mobility was observed in the field test. Its cause could be the changes of the groundwater level, floodplain inundation and pH conditions in alluvial deposits. Such processes may have influenced migration of the compounds originating from the weaving industry production; Cr and Pb contents detected in the profiles unaffected by the field experiment were too small to be used for relative dating of alluvial deposits. Moreover, the alluvial deposits with increased contents of the studied elements may be older than the period of the weaving industry development. Cr and Pb mobility was especially intensive in the profiles situated within the near bed zone of the floodplain due to regular inundation, and the activity of erosion and accumulation processes entraining the studied elements back to transport in the river bed.
This paper presents numerical analyses and a physical experiment on efficiency of different shapes and material composition of piezo actuators on vibration reduction. For this purpose numerical models of a plate clamped on all sides with piezo actuators attached were developed. The elements used were either standard homogeneous elements or the proposed two-part elements with different material composition for inner and outer part of piezo ceramic. Numerical analyses were performed using ANSYS software