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Abstract

It has been found that the vegetable oils are promising substitute, because of their properties are similar to those of diesel fuel and they are renewable and can be easily produced. However, drawbacks associated with crude vegetable oils are high viscosity, low volatility call for low heat rejection combustion chamber, with its significance characteristics of higher operating temperature, maximum heat release, and ability to handle lower calorific value (CV) fuel etc. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of an engine consisting of different low heat rejection (LHR) combustion chambers such as ceramic coated cylinder head-LHR-1, air gap insulated piston with superni (an alloy of nickel) crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert - LHR-2; and ceramic coated cylinder head, air gap insulated piston and air gap insulated liner - LHR-3 with normal temperature condition of crude rice bran oil (CRBO) with varied injector opening pressure. Performance parameters (brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust gas temperature, coolant load, and volumetric efficiency) and exhaust emissions [smoke levels and oxides of nitrogen [NOx]] were determined at various values of brake mean effective pressure of the engine. Combustion characteristics [peak pressure, time of occurrence of peak pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise] were determined at full load operation of the engine. Conventional engine (CE) showed compatible performance and LHR combustion chambers showed improved performance at recommended injection timing of 27°bTDC and recommend injector opening pressure of 190 bar with CRBO operation, when compared with CE with pure diesel operation. Peak brake thermal efficiencyincreased relatively by 7%, brake specific energy consumption at full load operation decreased relatively by 3.5%, smoke levels at full load decreased relatively by 11% and NOx levels increased relatively by 58% with LHR-3 combustion chamber with CRBO at an injector opening pressure of 190 bar when compared with pure diesel operation on CE.
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Abstract

The paper looks at an analysis of the tendency of changes in the fuel structure of electricity generation and thus resulting changes in carbon dioxide emissions. Forecasts drawn up by various institutions and organizations were selected for the analysis. Firstly, on the basis of statistical data contained in (IEA 2017a, IEA 2008) and with the use of Kay’s indicators, the impact of changes in energy intensity of the national income and energy mix on changes in carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2006–2015 for the OECD countries and Poland were analyzed. A small effect of changes was found in the fuel mix in this period of time on the emissions. The main impact was due to changes in the energy intensity of the national income and changes in the national income per capita. Next, selected fuel scenarios for the period up to 2050 (60) were discussed – WEC, IEA, EIA, BP, Shell, with a focus on the WEC scenarios. These have been developed for various assumptions with regard to the pace of economic development, population growth, and developments of the political situation and the situation on the fuel market. For this reason, it is difficult to assess the reliability thereof. The subject of the discussion was mainly the data on the fuel structure of electricity generation and energy intensity of national income and changes in carbon dioxide emissions. The final part of the paper offers a general analysis of forecasts drawn up for Poland. These are quite diverse, with some of them being developed as part of drawing up the Energy Policy for Poland until 2050, and some covering the period up to 2035. An observation has been made that some forecasts render results similar to those characteristic of the WEC Hard Rock scenario.
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