The article concerns computer modelling of processes in cooling systems of internal combustion engines. Modelling objectives and existing commercial programs are presented. It also describes Author’s own method of binding graphs used to describe phenomena in the cooling system of a spark ignition engine. The own model has been verified by tests on the engine dynamometer. An example of using a commercial program for experimental modelling of an installation containing a heat accumulator is presented.
Plastic rocks can creep, therefore the knowledge of the rheological properties of the drilled formations is an important element of the drilling process and when choosing borehole designs. These properties of plastic formations also influence the way in which appropriate drilling technology and drilling mud properties are selected. The article presents the effect of basic rheological parameters of salt from the Fore-Sudetic Monocline deposit on the drilling of boreholes in the mining area of KGHM Polska Miedź, which in the future can be used as a good drilling practice to improve the safety and efficiency of drilling. The process of drilling in plastic rocks may be hindered. Salt is a plastic rock and in the analyzed rock mass it is deposited at a considerable depth. The caprock exerts big loads on it, beside the temperature in the deposit intensifies the rheological properties of the rock. The creep process causes that the borehole contracts, therefore the knowledge about the rheological properties of the drilled rock is very important for establishing the safe time in which the well may remain uncased. The paper is devoted to the influence of basic rheological parameters of salt bed in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline on the process of drilling of a borehole in the area of KGHM Polska Miedź as these data can be used in drilling practice in the future.
The engine simulations have become an integral part of engine design and development. They are based on approximations and assumptions. The precision of the results depends on the accuracy of these hypotheses. The simplified models of frozen composition, chemical equilibrium and chemical kinetics provide the compositions of combustion products for engine cycle simulations. This paper evaluates the effects of different operating conditions and hypotheses on the exergetic analysis of a spark-ignition engine. The Brazilian automotive market has the highest number of flex-fuel vehicles. Therefore, a flex-fuel engine is considered for simulations in order to demonstrate the effects of these different hypotheses. The stroke length and bore diameter have the same value of 80 mm. The in-cylinder irreversibility is calculated for each case at the closed part of the engine cycle. A comparative analysis of these hypotheses provides a comprehensive evaluation of their effects on exergetic analysis. Higher values of accumulated irreversibility are observed for the oversimplified hypothesis.
The paper presents the possible applications of using acoustic diagnostics in inspecting the technical condition of an internal combustion engine with autoignition on the example of the Fiat drive unit with common rail system. As a result of measuring the sound pressure level for specific faults and comparing the noise generated by the motor running smoothly, the detailed maps of changes in the acoustic spectrum are possible to generate. These results may be helpful in the future diagnostics of internal combustion engines. In the paper, the results of scientific work in the area of research, design and operation of internal combustion engines, conducted at the Department of Automotive Engineering, in cooperation with the Laboratory of Hydraulic Drives & Vibroacoustics of Machines at the Wroclaw University of Technology are included.
The Stirling engine type alpha is composed of two cylinders (expansion space E and compression space C), regenerator that forms the space between the cylinders and the buffer space (under the pistons). Before the start-up and as a result of long-term operation, the average pressure in the working space (above the pistons) and in the buffer space is the same. However, in the initial phase of operation, the average pressure in the working space is different then the average pressure in the buffer space depending on the crankshaft starting position (starting angle). This, in turn, causes a large variation in the starting torque. An additional unfavorable factor caused by a large variation in the course of the indicated torque is the rotational speed variation and the formation of torsional vibrations in the drive system. After some time, depending on the quality of the engine piston sealing, the average pressure in the working and buffer space will equalize. The occurrence of the above-described phenomenon affects the selection of the starting electric motor, which can be significantly reduced, when the crankshaft starting position is optimized (the starting torque is several times greater than the average torque occurring in the generator operation mode). This paper presents the analysis of the impact of the crankshaft starting position on the course of the indicated torque and the resulting start-up energy. Starting the engine at an unfavorable position of the crankshaft may, in extreme cases, increase the starting torque even three times.
The paper presents the results of simulation tests of hydraulic resistance and temperature distribution of the prototype Stirling alpha engine supplied with waste heat. The following elements were analyzed: heater, regenerator and cooler. The engine uses compressed air as a working gas. Analyses were carried out for three working pressure values and different engine speeds. The work was carried out in order to optimize the configuration of the engine due to the minimization of hydraulic resistance, while maintaining the required thermal capacity of the device. Preliminary tests carried out on the real object allowed to determine boundary and initial conditions for simulation purposes. The simulation assumes that there is no heat exchange between the regenerator and the environment. The solid model used in simulation tests includes the following elements: supply channel, heater, regenerator, cooler, discharge channel. Due to the symmetrical structure of the analyzed elements, simulation tests were carried out using 1/6 of the volume of the system.
Results of a research study into the velocity field in combustion chamber of internal combustion engine are presented in the paper. Measurements of fresh charge flow velocity in the cylinder axis and near the cylinder squeezing surface were performed. The hot-wire anemometer was used. The measurement results were used for analysis of turbulence field in the examined combustion chamber. It turned out that in the axis of cylinder the maximum of velocity occurs 30 deg before TDC and achieves 6 m/s. In the studied combustion chamber, the maximum value of turbulence intensity was close to 0.2 and it was achieved 35 deg BTDC. Additionally, the maximal velocity dispersion in the following cycles of the researched engine was at the level of 2 m/s, which is 35% of the maximum value of flow velocity. At a point located near the squeezing surface of the piston, a similar level of turbulence, but a the smaller value of the average velocity was achieved. The turbulence field turned out to be inhomogeneous in the combustion chamber.
This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx), exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.
The article focuses on selected aspects of the technical and economic analysis of the 0.8 MW agricultural biogas plant. The electrical power, generated in a cogeneration system, fed power to the neighbouring overhead power grid, Węgrów – Sokołów Podlaski, while the heat energy recovered from combustion gases and liquids cooling the engine was used to heat digesters, a residential building, drying room and farm buildings. The planned annual production equals c.a. 6400 MWh per year given the 8000 h of engine operation. The substrates used as input for the digestive chambers were as follows: fermented maize, pig slurry and liquid digestate pulp.
First part of the article describes how we can by change of gating system achieve better homogeneity of product made by investment casting. Turbine engine flap was made by investment casting technology – lost wax casting. The casting process was realised in vacuum. The initial conditions (with critical occurrence of porosity) was simulated in ProCAST software. Numerical simulation can clarify during analysis of melt turbulent flow in gate system responsible for creation of entrained oxide films. After initial results and conclusions, the new gating system was created with subsequent turbulence analysis. The new design of gating system support direct flow of metal and a decrease of porosity values in observed areas was achieved. Samples taken from a casting produced with use of newly designed gating system was processed and prepared for metallography. The second part of article deals with identification of structural components in used alloy - Inconel 718. The Ni – base superalloys, which are combined unique physical and mechanical properties, are used in aircraft industry for production of aero engine most stressed parts, as are turbine blades.
The paper is concerned with an important issue from the field of thermoacoustics - the numerical modelling of the flow field in the thermoacoustic engine. The presented way of modelling is based on the solution to fundamental fluid mechanics equations that govern the flow of compressible, viscous, and heat-transferring gas. The paper presents the way of modelling the thermoacoustic engine, the way of conducting calculations and the results which illustrate the correctness of the selected computational technique.
The paper is a continuation of the publication under the title “Acoustic diagnostics applications in the study of technical condition of combustion engine” and concerns the detailed description of decision support system for identifying technical condition (type of failure) of specified combustion engine. The input data were measured sound pressure levels of specific faults in comparison to the noise generated by undamaged motor. In the article, the whole procedure of decision method based on game graphs is described, as well as the interface of the program for direct usage.
The aim of the work was to estimate the influence of plants mycorrhizas on the number of hydrocarbons degrading bacteria, saprophytic bacteria and molds fungi during the remediation of the soil samples contaminated with used engine oil. The investigation were carried out in laboratory conditions. Nine modifications of the soil substrate were prepared and divided into three groups: the first one - without used engine oil; the second one - with 10% (w/w) of used engine oil; the third one - with 25% (w/w) of used oil. In each group one sample was sown with ribwort, one was inoculated with living spores of mycorrhizal fungi and sown with ribwort, and the third one was left without plants and mycorrhizal fungi. The sample of the uncontaminated soil was the control. The investigation showed a significant effect of used engine oil, the presence of ribwort and mycorrhizal fungi on the number of soil microorganisms. The increase of the number of hydrocarbons degrading bacteria, in respect to the control sample was observed in the used engine oil contaminated samples. The seeding of soil samples with plants and additional inoculation with spores of mycorrhizal fungi stimulated the increase of the number of microorganisms in the all studied groups.
Biocomposite foam scaffolds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with different porogenes were produced with batch foaming technique using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a blowing agent. In performed experiments composites were prepared from graphene-oxide (nGO), nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) and nano-cellulose (nC), with various concentrations. The objective of the study was to explore the effects of porogen concentration and foaming process parameters on the morphology and mechanical properties of three-dimensional porous structures that can be used as temporary scaffolds in tissue engineering. The structures were manufactured using scCO2 as a blowing agent, at two various foaming pressures (9 MPa and 18 MPa), at three different temperatures (323 K, 343 K and 373 K) for different saturation times (0.5 h, 1 h and 4 h). In order to examine the utility of porogenes, a number of tests, such as static compression tests, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy, have been performed. Analysis of experimental results showed that the investigated materials demonstrated high mechanical strength and a wide range of pore sizes. The obtained results suggest that PCL porous structures are useful as biodegradable and biocompatible scaffolds for tissue engineering.
In this article, a comparison of economic effectiveness of various heating systems dedicated to residential applications is presented: a natural gas-fueled micro-cogeneration (micro-combined heat and power – μCHP) unit based on a free-piston Stirling engine that generates additional electric energy; and three so-called classical heating systems based on: gas boiler, coal boiler, and a heat pump. Calculation includes covering the demand for electricity, which is purchased from the grid or produced in residential system. The presented analyses are partially based on an experimental investigation. The measurements of the heat pump system as well as those of the energy (electricity and heat) demand profiles in the analyzed building were conducted for a single-family house. The measurements of the μCHP unit were made using a laboratory stand prepared for simulating a variable heat demand. The overall efficiency of the μCHP was in the range of 88.6– 92.4%. The amounts of the produced/consumed energy (electricity, heat, and chemical energy of fuel) were determined. The consumption and the generation of electricity were settled on a daily basis. Operational costs of the heat pump system or coal boiler based heating system are lower comparing to the micro-cogeneration, however no support system for natural gas-based μCHP system is included.
Combine harvesters are the source a large amount of noise in agriculture. Depending on different working conditions, the noise of such machines can have a significant effect on the hearing condition of drivers. Therefore, it is highly important to study the noise signals caused by these machines and find solutions for reducing the produced noise. The present study was carried out is order to obtain the fractal dimension (FD) of the noise signals in Sampo and John Deere combine harvesters in different operational conditions. The noise signals of the combines were recorded with different engine speeds, operational conditions, gear states, and locations. Four methods of direct estimations of the FD of the waveform in the time domain with three sliding windows with lengths of 50, 100, and 200 ms were employed. The results showed that the Fractal Dimension/Sound Pressure Level [dB] in John Deere and Sampo combines varied in the ranges of 1.44/96.8 to 1.57/103.2 and 1.23/92.3 to 1.51/104.1, respectively. The cabins of Sampo and John Deere combines reduced and enhanced these amounts, respectively. With an increase in the length of the sliding windows and the engine speed of the combines, the amount of FD increased. In other words, the size of the suitable window depends on the extraction method of calculating the FD. The results also showed that the type of the gearbox used in the combines could have a tangible effect on the trend of changes in the FD.
Regeneration – an integrated process of activities undertaken in the spatial, social and economic dimensions – should lead to the improvement of the living conditions of inhabitants of degraded urban areas. The European Union in 2007- 2013 allocated financial resources for this purpose in the form of JESSICA initiative which is based on financial engineering mechanism. Experiences gained so far allow conclusions to be drawn that JESSICA is a highly fi nancially-effi cient instrument but, however, not always delivers the desired outcomes in the spatial and social sphere. The scope of projects often is limited to infrastructural investments and does not reflect the complexity of regeneration process. In the article the authors analyse experiences of the five Polish regions with the use of JESSICA, point out main problems and formulate recommendations for sustainable urban policy.
The article shows the methodology and calculation procedures based on Lagrange polynomial interpolation which were used to determine standard performance characteristics of the Polish production engine, type ANDORIA 4CTi90-1BE6. They allow to simplify the experimental research by maintaining a minimum number of measurement points and estimating the remaining data in an analytical way. The methods presented are convenient when it comes to the practical side because they eliminate the need for exploration of mathematical equations describing the various curves, which can be cumbersome and time consuming in the case of nonautomated accounts. The results of analysis were applied to actual experimental results, indicating sufficient accuracy of the resulting approximations. As a result, procedures may be used in bench testing of a similar profile, especially with repeated cycles of the experiment, such as optimization of operating parameters of combustion engines.
Protection of the environment and counteracting global warming require finding alternative sources of energy. One of the methods of generating energy from environmentally friendly sources is increasing the share of gaseous fuels in the total energy balance. The use of these fuels in compression-ignition (CI) engines is difficult due to their relatively high autoignition temperature. One solution for using these fuels in CI engines is operating in a dualfuel mode, where the air and gas mixture is ignited with a liquid fuel dose. In this method, a series of relatively complex chemical processes occur in the engine's combustion chamber, related to the combustion of individual fuel fractions that interact with one another. Analysis of combustion of specific fuels in this type of fuel injection to the engine is difficult due to the fact that combustion of both fuel fractions takes place simultaneously. Simulation experiments can be used to analyse the impact of diesel fuel combustion on gaseous fuel combustion. In this paper, we discuss the results of simulation tests of combustion, based on the proprietary multiphase model of a dual-fuel engine. The results obtained from the simulation allow for analysis of the combustion process of individual fuels separately, which expands the knowledge obtained from experimental tests on the engine.
Transmission of vibroacoustic energy from an internal combustion engine (ICE) to its surroundings largely depends on how it is mounted, on available transmission paths and on the construction of the vehicle body and/or its surrounding structures. This is especially true in low speed engines in enclosed areas which generate perceptually weak noise, but strong low-frequency waves which energy has a negative impact on human health, comfort and driving safety especially in prolonged exposure to the source. The primary aim of the article was to analyse components of the ICE unit which had a determining impact on the reduction of low-frequency waves. Thus, the structurally transmitted noise from the ICE to its surrounding structure (body of the passenger vehicle) was analysed. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were compared to modal analysis in order to determine possible resonance sources in the vehicle body and/or for assessing the influence of the vehicles safety gear on the generated vibroacoustic energy transfer into the cabin area of the passenger vehicle. Measurements were made for a passenger vehicle at rest and operating in its most common operational speed as well as for the stationary ICE of a cogenerate unit (CGU). Measurements and FFT analysis were used for the detection of the vibroacoustic energy sound pressure level (noise) and mechanical vibration. Firstly, the low-frequency noise sources were determined and their direct effects on the human body were investigated. Finally, this paper suggests some measures which may contribute to the reduction of undesirable vibroacoustic energy in enclosed areas.
The paper presents the idea of a system for controlling the movement of a flowmeter for air velocity profile measurement. In such a system, due to massive amount of data and limitations of the Data Acquisition Equipment, it is necessary to use moveable sensors. The flowmeter sensor is moved with the use of a linear module with a stepper motor and a tooth-belt drive. The location and speed of the sensor are controlled by a program based on the idea of virtual instrument. The proposed structure allows the user to control operation of the stand and provides automatic measurement. A wide range of velocity and step increments of the stepper motor drive, and flexibility of the virtual instrument software, allow one to create effective measurement systems ensuring sufficiently precise location with optimal time duration of measurement. It is shown that the linear module with tooth-belt is an effective alternative for similar modules with micro-screw drives.
In this paper, pole placement-based design and analysis of a free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is presented and compared to the well-defined Beale number design technique. First, dynamic and thermodynamic equations governing the engine system are extracted. Then, linear dynamics of the free piston Stirling engine are studied using dynamic systems theory tools such as root locus. Accordingly, the effects of variations of design parameters such as mass of pistons, stiffness of springs, and frictional damping on the locations of dominant closed-loop poles are investigated. The design procedure is thus conducted to place the dominant poles of the dynamic system at desired locations on the s-plane so that the unstable dynamics, which is the required criterion for energy generation, is achieved. Next, the closed-loop poles are selected based on a desired frequency so that a periodical system is found. Consequently, the design parameters, including mass and spring stiffness for both power and displacer pistons, are obtained. Finally, the engine power is calculated through the proposed control-based analysis and the result is compared to those of the experimental work and the Beale number approach. The outcomes of this work clearly reveal the effectiveness of the control-based design technique of FPSEs compared to the well-known approaches such as Beale number.