Lately, there has been increased interest in hybrid excitation electrical machines. Hybrid excitation is a construction that combines permanent magnet excitation with wound field excitation. Within the general classification, these machines can be classified as modified synchronous machines or inductor machines. These machines may be applied as motors and generators. The complexity of electromagnetic phenomena which occur as a result of coupling of magnetic fluxes of separate excitation systems with perpendicular magnetic axis is a motivation to formulate various mathematical models of these machines. The presented paper discusses the construction of a unipolar hybrid excitation synchronous machine. The magnetic equivalent circuit model including nonlinear magnetization curves is presented. Based on this model, it is possible to determine the multi-parameter relationships between the induced voltage and magnetomotive force in the excitation winding. Particular attention has been paid to the analysis of the impact of additional stator and rotor yokes on above relationship. Induced voltage determines the remaining operating parameters of the machine, both in the motor and generator mode of operation. The analysis of chosen correlations results in an identification of the effective control range of electromotive force of the machine.
This paper aims to present a new equivalent scheme of multi-windings traction transformers, based on multiport purely inductive circuit. The mathematical background of this equivalent scheme is described. The determination of the different scheme elements is made through a finite-elements calculation of both main and leakage inductances, for the case of a four-winding transformer. A procedure is defined, which allows to estimate the values of these elements from some measurements on the transformer at no-load and short-circuit operations. A specific strategy of short-circuit tests is described, allowing to determine all parameters in a rather simple way.
Regarding the importance of short circuit and inrush current simulations in the split-winding transformer, a novel nonlinear equivalent circuit is introduced in this paper for nonlinear simulation of this transformer. The equivalent circuit is extended using the nonlinear inductances. Employing a numerical method, leakage and magnetizing inductances in the split-winding transformer are extracted and the nonlinear model inductances are estimated using these inductances. The introduced model is validated and using this nonlinear model, inrush and short-circuit currents are calculated. It has been seen that the introduced model is valid and suitable for simulations of the split-winding transformer due to various loading conditions. Finally, the effects of nonlinearity of the model inductances are discussed in the following.
Long transmission lines have to be compensated to enhance the transport of active power. But a wrong design of the compensation may lead to subsynchronous resonances (SSR). For studies often park equivalent circuits are used. The parameters of the models are often determined analytically or by a three-phase short-circuit test. Models with this parameters give good results for frequencies of 50 Hz and 100 Hz resp. 60 Hz and 120 Hz. But SSR occurs at lower frequencies what arises the question of the reliability of the used models. Therefore in this publication a novel method for the determination of Park equivalent circuit parameters is presented. Herein the parameters are determined form time functions of the currents and the electromagnetic moment of the machine calculated by transient finite-element simulations. This parameters are used for network simulations and compared with the finite-element calculations. Compared to the parameters derived by a three-phase short-circuit a significant better accuracy of simulation results can be achieved by the presented method.
Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices like delay lines, filters, resonators etc., are nowadays extensively used as principal solid state components in many electronic applications and chemical vapour sensors. To bring out the best from these SAW devices, computational design and modelling are resorted too. The present paper proposes the modelling of 400 MHz ST-X Quartz based SAW delay line, by three models namely, Impulse Response Model (IRM), Crossed-field Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) and Couplingof- Modes (COM) model. MATLABr is employed as a computational tool to model the experimental output of the SAW device. A comparative discussion of the modelled device results is also provided.
Degradation of Supercapacitors (SC) is quantified by accelerated ageing tests. Energy cycling tests and calendar life tests are used since they address the real operating modes. The periodic characterization is used to analyse evolution of the SC parameters as a whole, and its Helmholtz and diffusion capacitances. These parameters are determined before the ageing tests and during 3 × 105 cycles of both 75% and 100% energy cycling, respectively. Precise evaluation of the capacitance and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR) is based on fitting the experimental data by an exponential function of voltage vs. time. The ESR increases linearly with the number (No) of cycles for both 75% and 100% energy cycling, whereas a super-linear increase of ESR vs. time of cycling is observed for the 100% energy cycling. A decrease of capacitance in time had been evaluated for 2000 hours of ageing of SC. A relative change of capacitance is ΔC/C0 = 16% for the 75% energy cycling test and ΔC/C0 = 20% for the 100% energy cycling test at temperature 25°C, while ΔC/C0 = 6% for the calendar test at temperature 22°C for a voltage bias V = 1.0 Vop. The energy cycling causes a greater decrease of capacitance in comparison with the calendar test; such results may be a consequence of increasing the temperature due to the Joule heat created in the SC structure. The charge/discharge current value is the same for both 75% and 100% energy cycling tests, so it is the Joule heat created on both the equivalent series resistance and time-dependent diffuse resistance that should be the source of degradation of the SC structure. The diffuse resistance reaches a value of up to 30Ω within each 75% energy cycle and up to about 43Ω within each 100% energy cycle.
The new topology of three-winding welding transformer is proposed. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel through the separate bridge rectifier to the welding arc. The main feature of the proposed device is parallel working of two secondary windings with different rated voltage. The advantage is nonlinear transformation ratio of current that provides unprecedented power efficiency. The self- and mutual leakage inductances, which are important in power conversion, are calculated by 2D FEA model. The operational current of the device is modelled numerically via P-Spice simulator. The proposed topology is up to 30% more power effective than conventional welding transformer provided that the leakage inductances of primary and secondary windings are correctly fitted. This transformer is used for manual arc welding.
A contactless energy transmission system is essential to supply onboard systems of electromagnetically levitated vehicles without physical contact to the guide rail. One of the possibilities to realise a contactless power supply (CPS) is by integrating the primary actuator into the guide rail of an electromagnetic guiding system (MGS). The secondary actuator is mounted on the elevator car. During the energy transmission, load dependent non-linear losses occur in the guide rail. The additional losses, which are caused by the leakage flux penetrating into the guide rail, cannot be modelled using the classical approach of iron losses in the equivalent circuit of a transformer, which is a constant parallel resistance to the mutual inductance. This paper introduces an approach for modelling the load dependent non-linear losses occurring in the guide rail using additional variable discrete circuit elements.