In this article, we study tilted fiber Bragg gratings (TFBGs) with tilt angles of 6◦ and 8◦, their transmission spectra, and spectral parameters that have a linear dependence on the refractive index of the environment. It is shown that there can be several such characteristics, such as the minimum, width and energy of the spectrum. The linear dependence of the spectrum width on the refractive index does not depend on the tilt angle. The linear dependence of the spectrum minimum is only observed for a tilt angle of 8◦. The results of this work can be used to create a sensor system based on an optical fiber.
Polarimetric optical fiber sensors based on highly birefringent (HB) polarization-maintaining fibers have focused great interest for last decades. The paper presents a novel modular fiber optic sensing system of potential industrial applications to measure temperature, hydrostatic pressure, and strain that is based on classical HB and photonic crystal fibers and can operate at visible and infrared wavelengths. The main idea of the system is a novel and replaceable fiber-optic head, which allows adjusting the measuring system both to the required range and type (strain, pressure or temperature) of the external measurand. We propose also a new configuration of the fiber optic strain gauge with a free cylinder and an all-fiber built-in analyzer based on the photonic crystal fiber filled with a liquid crystal. Additionally, strain sensitivities of various HB fibers operating at visible and infrared wavelengths range have been measured.
This study investigates the use of steel fibers and hybrid composite with a total fibers content of 2% on the high strength flowing concrete and determines the density, compressive strength, static modulus of elasticity, flexural strength and toughness indices for the mixes. The results show that the inclusion of more than 0.5% of palm fibers in hybrid fibers mixes reduces the compressive strength. The hybrid fibers can be considered as a promising concept and the replacement of a portion of steel fibers with palm fibers can significantly reduce the density, enhance the flexural strength and toughness. The results also indicates that the use of hybrid fibers (1.5 steel fibers + 0.5% palm fibers) in specimens increases significantly the toughness indices and thus the use of hybrid fibers combinations in reinforced concrete would enhance their flexural toughness & rigidity and enhance their overall performances.
The paper presents a modification of capillary optical fibers fabrication method from an assembled glass preform. A change of dimensional proportions in the capillary optical fiber drawn from a single preform is allowed on-line via the control of overpressure and thermal conditions in the outflow meniscus which essentially lowers the manufacturing costs. These conditions are among the solutions (velocity fields) of the Navier-Stokes equations adapted to the capillary optical fiber pulling geometry and temperature distribution in the oven. The velocity fields give solutions to other quantities of interest such as flow rate, pulling force and fiber geometry. The calculation and experimental results for capillary optical fibers were shown in the following dimensional range: internal diameters 2-200 µm, external diameters 30-350 µm, within the assumed dimensional stability (including ellipticity) better than 1%. The parameters of fabricated capillary optical fibers of high-quality low-loss optical multicomponent glasses were: losses 100 dB/km, mechanical strength above 1GPa with Weibull coeffcient in the range 3-7, internal numerical aperture 0.1-0.3, external numerical aperture 0.1-0.3, core index 1.5-1.8, transparency 0.4-2 µm, thermally and/or chemically conditioned internal surface, double polyimide protection layer, soft or hard jacketed, connectorized. The capillary optical fibers were applied in our own and several external laboratories in spectroscopy, refractometry, micro-fluidics and functional microoptic components. The paper summarizes a design, technological and application work on capillary optical fibers performed during a recent national research program devoted to optoelectronic components and modules.
This paper outlines a measurement method of properties of microstructured optical fibers that are useful in sensing applications. Experimental studies of produced photonic-crystal fibers allow for a better understanding of the principles of energy coupling in photonic-crystal fibers. For that purpose, fibers with different filling factors and lattice constants were produced. The measurements demonstrated the influence of the fiber geometry on the coupling level of light between the cores. For a distance between the cores of 15 μm, a very low level (below 2%) of energy coupling was obtained. For a distance of 13 μm, the level of energy transfer to neighboring cores on the order of 2-4% was achieved for a filling factor of 0.29. The elimination of the energycoupling phenomenon between the cores was achieved by duplicating the filling factor of the fiber. The coupling level was as high as 22% in the case of fibers with a distance between the cores of 8.5 μm. Our results can be used for microstructured-fiber sensing applications and for transmission-channel switching in liquid-crystal multi-core photonic fibers.
Stem structure strongly influences the drought response across a diverse group of temperate and tropical tree species. The stem of Salvadora persica (miswak), used as a chewing stick in the Islamic world, has a number of distinctive xeromorphic characteristics adapting it to arid or semi-arid conditions. The thick periderm is interrupted at points around the stem by transversely oriented lenticels to moderate exchange of vital gases. On the stem surface are 3-dimensional epicuticular crystals of various shape and size, present to protect against UV exposure, insects and pathogens. The secondary xylem contains groups of xylem fibers which consist of thickwalled narrow cells. Vessels are axially oriented without branching for interconnection. The xylem is also composed of parenchyma cells, which are characterized as ray parenchyma and wood parenchyma. The woodparenchyma become crushed in the middle, forming a chamber which is later filled with amorphous inclusions or rhombohedral crystals. SEM-EDX analysis revealed sulphur in wood parenchyma cells, likely a defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Apart from its adaptive value, the sophisticated stem anatomy of Salvadora persica, in combination with its chemistry, makes it an effective tool for oral hygiene.
The sound absorption property of polyurethane (PU) foams loaded with natural tea-leaf fibers and luffa cylindrica (LC) has been studied. The results show a significant improvement in the sound absorption property parallel to an increase in the amount of tea-leaf fibers (TLF). Using luffa-cylindrica as a filler material improves sound absorption properties of soft foam at all frequency ranges. Moreover, an increase in the thickness of the sample resulted in an improvement of the sound absorption property. It is pleasing to see that adding tea-leaf fibers and luffa-cylindrica to the polyurethane foam demonstrate a significant contribution to sound absorption properties of the material and it encourages using environmental friendly products as sound absorption material in further studies.
PCFs (Photonic Crystal Fibers) with ‘T’ – shaped core have been proposed in this paper. ‘T’ –shaped core PCF structures have been analyzed using two different background materials: silica and lead silicate. A total of 3600 rotation at an interval of 900 has been introduced in the design of PCF structures. PCF structures A, B, C and D with rotation of 00, 900, 1800 and 2700 have silica as wafer. Similarly PCF structures E, F, G and H with similar rotation have lead silicate as background material. Numerical investigations shows structures ‘D’, ‘F’, ‘G’ and ‘H’ to have anomalous dispersion. PCF structures ‘F’, ‘G’, and ‘H’ have reported birefringence of the order of 10-2. Besides, other PCF structures report birefringence of the order of 10-3. Ultra low confinement loss has been observed in all the investigated PCF structures. Moreover, splice loss observed by the structure is very low. Large mode area has been shown by all the designed PCF structures.
In this research reactive powder concrete (RPC) was prepared using sand from North Sinai. The mechanical properties of locally cast RPC were investigated and evaluated by studying the effects of using different cement and silica fume contents and new steel fi bers’ aspect ratios as reinforce-ment for RPC. Specimens’ preparation, curing regimes and testing procedures to evaluate the com-pressive strength, the modulus of elasticity, the indirect tensile strength and the fl exural strength were discussed. A compressive strength of 154.5 MPa, indirect tensile strength of 11.98 MPa, mod-ulus of elasticity of 45.1 GPa and fl exural strength of 30.26 MPa have been achieved for reinforced RPC contains 800 kg/m³ cement content and silica fume content 30% of cement weight. The test results showed some improvements by increasing cement and silica fume contentsas well as adding steel fi bers on the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and indirect tensile strength.
Concrete is the most widely used construction material because of its specialty of being cast into any desired shape. The main requirements of earthquake resistant structures are good ductility and energy absorption capacity. Fiber reinforced concrete possesses high flexural and tensile strength, improved ductility, and high energy absorption over the conventional concrete in sustaining dynamic loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the properties of concrete beams in which three types of fibers are added individually. Steel fibers, polypropylene fibers and hybrid fibers were added to concrete in the weight ratio of four percentages in the preparation of four beam specimens. The fourth specimen did not contain fibers and acted as a control specimen. The dimensions of the beam specimens were 150 × 150 × 700 mm. The reinforced concrete beams of M30 grade concrete were prepared for casting and testing. Various parameters such as load carrying capacity, stiffness degradation, ductility characteristics and energy absorption capacity of FRC beams were compared with that of RC beams. The companion specimens were cast and tested to study strength properties and then the results were compared. All the beams were tested under three point bending under Universal Testing Machine (UTM). The results were evaluated with respect to modulus of elasticity, first crack load, ultimate load, and ultimate deflection. The test result shows that use of hybrid fiber improves the flexural performance of the reinforced concrete beams. The flexural behavior and stiffness of the tested beams were calculated, and compared with respect to their load carrying capacities. Comparison was also made with theoretical calculations in order to determine the load-deflection curves of the tested beams. Results of the experimental programme were compared with theoretical predictions. Based on the results of the experimental programme, it can be concluded that the addition of steel, polypropylene and hybrid fibers by 4% by weight of cement (but 2.14% by volume of cement) had the best effect on the stiffness and energy absorption capacity of the beams.